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THE LORD KITCHENER 
MEMORIAL BOOK 




THE LATE FIELD-MARSHAL EARL KITCHENER, C.V.O., O.M. 

FROM A PAINTING BY THE HON. JOHN COLLIER 
By courtesy of the Fine Art Society 



HE LORD 




f=^ 





MEMORIAL 




Edited by 

SIR HEDLEY LE BAS 

Joint Honorary Secrerary of the Lord Kitchener 
National Memorial Fund. 



PUBUSHED ON BEHALF OP 
THE LORD KITCHENER 
NATIONAL MEMORIAL FUND 

HODDER. AND STOUGHTON 
LONDON • NEWYORK TORONTO 




W. H. SMITH AND SON, THE ARDEN PRESS, STAMFORD STREET, S.E 



FOREWORD 

BY 

THE RIGHT HON. THE EARL OF DERBY, K.G. 

The tragedy of Lord Kitchener's death was so sudden, so 
surrounded by tremendous and dramatic events, that it was 
impossible at the time to do adequate justice to his memory. 
This volume has therefore been prepared as a slight memorial 
to his life and work. 

It contains tributes from men who write from intimate 
knowledge of this great man. It contains, further, a complete 
pictorial record of Lord Kitchener's life, made possible by the 
generous permissions granted by the various illustrated news- 
papers and by the art publishers and photographers who have 
with one accord placed their most valuable pictures at our 
disposal free of any cost. Thanks are also due to Messrs. James 
Spicer & Sons, Ltd., for their helpful gift of paper. 

It was felt in such a volume no attempt should be made 
at a formal biography, as so much information which is necessary 
for such a work is of a confidential nature and could not now be 
included. That must be left to the future, but I feel sure that 
readers will be glad to have a complete record of all Lord 
Kitchener's public utterances since the beginning of the War. 

All the profits from the sale of this book will be paid to the 
Lord Kitchener National Memorial Fund. 

Derby. 



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Lord Crawford 



Lord Robert Cecil 



Sir F. E. Smith 



Mr. Walttr Long 



TIk Prime Minister 



Lord Lansdowne 



Mr. Ilarcourt 



Mr. McKenna 






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Lord Crewe 
Mr. Bonar Law 
Mr. Lloyd George 
Viscount Grey 
Lord Buckmaster 
Mr. Balfour 
Lord Curzou 
•Mr. Montagu 
Mr. II. .1. Tcnnaut 







AT one of the last incctttif^s <'/ Mr. 
Asquiths Cabinet all the members 
siflneil then- mmu-fi in the order in 
uhich they sit <it the tabic at 10. Do^vninK. 
Street, avil this historic document wasprc- 
xentcd to the Lord Kitchener Metnonul Fund 
for n production in this volume. 



44 



K" 



BY 



THE EARL OF DERBY, K.G. 

From a Speech delivered in the House of Lords 

I am not speaking of Lord Kitchener the Field-Marshal, of 
Lord Kitchener the administrator ; I speak only of Kitchener, 
" K " as we called him, of Kitchener who was the best friend I 
ever had. I had known him for many years. Our acquaintance 
ripened in South Africa, and during the past few months I do 
not think anybody had been in closer touch with him than I had. 

I saw him in a light that very few people saw him in — a 
light which the public as a whole can hardly realise existed. 
He was supposed to be harsh, taciturn, stern by the general 
public. I never knew a worse estimate of a man's character 
than that. Lord Kitchener was shy— more shy than people 
imagined, and diffident always about himself. One little incident 
I should like to recall. It must have been about fifteen months 
ago I saw him in his room at the War Office, and he said to me, 
" I wish you could tell me what I am doing wrong." When I 
expressed my surprise he said, " I feel there is something I 
ought to be doing. There is something more I ought to do for 
the country I am doing all that I can and yet I feel that I 
am still leaving much undone." 

He was a man who inspired the greatest possible affection 
amongst his friends. I hope your lordships will excuse me if I 
refer to one particular friendship which stands out in Lord 
Kitchener's life— the friendship of Colonel Fitzgerald, his private 



TITE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

•ecrotary. If ever man gave up the whole of liis life to the service 
of nnotlier, Colonel Fitzgerald was a man who gave it \ip to Lord 
Kitchener. If we may doubt or question, as the noble Marquess 
has said, whether the end of Lord Kitchener was what he would 
himself have hoped, there is one thing that is absolutely certain, 
and that is, that Colonel Fitzgerald met the death he would have 
asked for — side by side with the man he had served so faithfully 
throughout his military career. When I look back upon my 
friendship with Lord Kitchener, curiously enough the days that 
come back best to my memory are two days in the last week 
of his life. Less than a week before he died I had been dining 
alone with him, and after dinner he talked, not of the war, but 
of all those matters which interested him so much in his private 
life — of Broome, of his china, of his life after the war, and of 
his trip to Russia, which he was looking forward to with the 
keenness of a schoolboy going for a holiday. That is a talk I 
shall never forget. 

Three days later came the meeting with members of the 
House of Commons, at which I was the only Member of your 
Lordships' House who had the privilege to be present. I had 
been present when the suggestion was made to him that he 
should meet the members of the House of Commons. There 
was no indecision whatever as to what his answer should be. 
The moment it was proposed he at once said that of course he 
would meet them. But with that singular gift that he had, 
although no Parliamentarian, of often seeing what might be 
said in Parliament, he made it a condition that he should not 
meet the Members of the House of Commons until after his 
salary had been discussed, because, he said, " I am not going 
to be told I attempt to burke discussion." I was present at 
that meeting, and I will candidly confess that, although I had 
no doubt in my own mind as to the great value of such a meeting, 
I had some doubt as to how far he, a non-Parliamentarian, 
would be able to deal with the questions that all of us who have 
been conversant with election matters know to a certain extent 
how to deal with. I need not have been doubtful ; I might have 



LORD DERBY 

known him better. That meeting has been kept strictly secret. 
I am not going for one moment to withdraw the veil of secrecy. 
But I think I can say without hesitation that when he left 
that room where there had been over two hundred Members of 
Parliament questioning him for a considerable time he left 
behind him a feeling in regard to himself amongst Members 
which anybody in any position might have been proud to possess. 

Little did we realise then that he was really writing the 
last chapter of a busy hfe. It is almost unbelievable how com- 
plete was his good-bye to this nation. He said good-bye then 
to the nation through its representatives, he said good-bye to 
his King, the next day good-bye to his beloved Broome, the 
following day to Sir John Jellicoe and the Grand Fleet, and 
then came the end. Let me say there was no kind of a presenti- 
ment. I only mention this because I feel that, as in the case 
of his great military chief. Lord Roberts, the end was really 
the one that he would have wished for. Lord Roberts died 
after visiting his beloved Indian troops, within sound of the 
guns. 

Lord Kitchener said good-bye to the nation at a moment 
when he left the whole of the machinery of the great armies 
that he created in running order, and when it only required 
skilled engineers to keep going his work. It was really as if 
Providence in its wisdom had given him the rest which he never 
would have given to himself. With the memory of a great 
naval battle fresh in our minds, we must all realise how rich a 
harvest of death the sea has reaped. We in these islands from 
time immemorial have paid a heavy toll to the sea for our insular 
security, but speaking as the friend of a friend, I can say that 
the sea never exacted a heavier toll than when Lord Kitchener, 
coffined in a British man-of-war, passed to the Great Beyond. 



THE LORD KITCHENER NATIONAL 

MEMORIAL EUND FOR DISABLED OEEICERS 

AND MEN OF THE NAVY AND ARMY 



President : 
HER MAJESTY QUEEN ALEXANDRA 

Treasurer : 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London 

Vice-Presidents 



His GTRCf the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

His Grace the Ardihisliop of York. 

His EmiiieiuH* Ciirdiiuil Bourne. 

TIte Hiizht Hon. H. H. Asqiiitli, K.C., M.P. 

Fieid-M;irsh;il the Viscount Frcncli.G.c.B.,o.M. 

The Hiirht Hon. tJie Lord CunHffe. 

Aduiiruj Sir John Jellicoe, g.c.b., O.M., o.c.v.o. 



General Sir Douglas Haig, g.c.b., o.c.v.o. 
Chairman of the Free Church Council. 
The Very Rev. J. H. Hertz, Cliief Kabbi. 
GeneralBraniweli Booth, Salvation Army. 
Chairman of the Baltic Exchanjje. 
Chairman of Lloyd's. 
Chairman of the Stock Exchange. 



Council 



His Grace the Duke of Norfolk, k.g. 
His (Jrace the Duke of Devonshire, K.G. 
His Grace the Duke of Porlkuid, K.o. 
The Marquis de Chasseloup Laubat. 
The Most Hon. the Marquess of Lansdowne, 

K.G. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Salisbury, 

G.c.v.o. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, k.g. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Rosebery, 

K.G., K.T. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Powis. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Cromer, g.c.b., 

O.M. 

Commander Viscount Broome, r.n. 
Ficld-.Maishal the Lord Grenfell, G.C.B., 

g.c.m.g. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Desborough, 

K.C.V.O. 

Admiral the Ix)rd Beresford, g.c.b., g.c.v.o. 
The Right Hon. Sir Frederick Milner, Bart. 
The Hon. Arthur Stanley, c.b., m.p. 
The Hon. Sir Sidney Greville, k.c.v.o., c.b. 
Admiral of the Fleet the Hon. Sir Hedworth 

Meux, g.c.b., K.C.V.O. 
General the Right Hon. Sir Dighton Probyn, 

v.c, g.c.b. 
The Right Hon. G. N. Barnes, m.p. 



The Right Hon. W. Crooks, m.p. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Provost of 

Edinburgh 
The Right Hon. the Lord Provost of Glasgow 
The Lord Provost of Dundee. 
The Lord Provost of Aberdeen. 
The Honourable Algernon Mills. 
The Honourable Sir Charles Russell, Bart. 
Sir George Arthur, Bart., m.v.o. 
Sir Frederick Treves, Bart., G.C.V.O. 
Sir William Garstin, g.c.m.g. 
General Sir William Robertson, k.c.b., 

K.C.M.G. 

Lt.-General Sir William Birdwood, k.c.s.i., 

K.CH.G. 

Sir Robert Hudson. 

Sir C. C. Wakefield. 

Sir Hedley Le Bas. 

Mr. Alfred de Rothschild, C.V.O. 

Mr. H. J. Creedy, c.b., m.v.o. 

Lt.-Col. John Ward, m.p. 

Mr. R. Paton, Hon. Treasurer, Lord Kitchener 

Fund, Edinburgh. 
Mr. Pandeli Ralli. 
Mr. Arthur Renshaw. 
Mr. J. Samuel, Hon. Treasurer IiOrd 

Kitchener Fund, Glasgow. 



Hon. Auditors Hon. Solicitors 

Messrs. Price, Waterhouse & Co. Messrs. Kekewich, Smith & Kaye. 

Joint Hon. Secretaries. 
Sir Hedley Le Bas. Mr. H. J. Creedy, c.b., m.v.o. 



LORD KITCHENER NATIONAL MEMORIAL FUND 

OBJECTS OF THE FUND 

The object of the Fund is to provide for disabled officers and 
men of the Navy and Army. The Government pension may be 
assumed to protect the recipients against actual want, but the 
instances of disablement contemplated by the Fund show that 
much will have to be provided beyond mere sustenance if life 
is to be made tolerable ; and much will have been achieved if it 
can be assured that the individual sufferer has such assistance 
in the way of medical and surgical necessaries as his condition 
demands. 

Among the disabled officers in the armies raised by Lord 
Kitchener are many men of slender means, while even those who 
may be regarded as fairly well off may need help in cases where 
expensive measures of treatment are involved. 

The Council of the Fund realise that the proper place for 
the disabled officer or man is his own home. To get home is his 
first wish, and to help him in this direction will be a prominent 
object of the Fund. In many cases of disablement, however, 
persistent medical or surgical treatment, or special nursing, is 
needed to relieve suffering, to prolong life, or to make life more 
endurable, and to confer some lasting benefit on the invalid. 

This often involves a far greater outlay than the disabled 
man of limited means can afford. It will therefore be the first 
purpose of the Fund to help officers and men alike, and to 
provide not only medical aid, but to supply apparatus, appli- 
ances, expensive nursing requisites, such as water beds, and to 
help generally in making the life of the disabled man as free 
from worry and discomfort as is possible. 

There will be many cases which could not with advantage 
be treated in the homes of the patients, such as the case of a 
man totally paralysed, who cannot receive adequate care 
except at very great expense. He needs a special bedstead if 
he is to be moved daily into the fresh air, and he needs also 
costly appliances and a constant service of both male and female 
nurses. He needs electrical and other measures of treatment. 



LORD KITCHENER NATIONAL MEMORIAL FUND 

massage, etc., which can only be adequately supplied in a home 
or institution, which will form the basis of the Fund's efforts. 

To such an institution will be attached an elTicient residential 
and visiting staff. The disabled man will be assured of the 
best possible treatment that the country can provide, and if 
there is any hope of recovery, that hope is more likely to be 
rtalised in such a special establishment as is contemplated. 

In adtlition to helping disabled officers and men, the Council 
have resolved to found a number of Scholarships, which will 
enable young Britons destined for a commercial career to travel, 
study, and gain business experience in the countries of the Allied 
nations — namely : France, Russia, Italy, Japan, Belgium, Rou- 
mania, Portugal, and Serbia. 

The Scholarships will be for the sons of deceased and 
disabled officers and men of the Navy and Army, and young men 
from 18 to 25 years of age who have served with His Majesty's 
Forces, and they will be continued from year to year for all 
time and be of the annual value of about £150 each. 

Remittances should be sent to the " Lord Kitchener National 
Memorial Fund," the Mansion House, London. 

All other communications should be sent to — 

Sir Hedley Le Bas, 

Joint Hon. Secretary, 

" Lord Kitchener National Memorial Fund," 

34-35 Norfolk Street, Strand, London. 



LORD KITCHENER AT THE WAR OFFICE 

BY 

GENERAL SIR WILLIAIVI ROBERTSON, 

K.C.B., KX.V.O., D.S.O., 

Chief of the Imperial Geiieral Staff 



It is universally admitted that if we eventually win this 
war, as we may hope to do, the chief credit will be due to Lord 
Kitchener, for he alone, so far as I am aware, grasped from 
the first the magnitude of the task in front of us. The rapidity 
and efficiency with which he caused the New Armies to be 
raised, equipped, and put into the field, were little short of 
marvellous. I doubt if the same results could have been achieved 
by any other man available at the time, nor can they be fully 
appreciated by anyone not acquainted with the stupendous 
amount and varied nature of the work involved in the creation 
and organisation of large military forces in the midst of a great 
war. Lord Kitchener had a great affection for these armies, 
and one would wish that he might have been permitted to see 
the day when they will return victorious from the great struggle 
in which they are now taking so gallant a part. 

He possessed to an exceptional degree the quality of being 
able not only to detect essentials, but of treating them as such, 
and he refused to be diverted from them by side issues and 
details of comparative unimportance. It was probably due to 
this refusal that he sometimes offended the feelings of his weaker 
colleagues and subordinates. Being human, his judgment was 
not infallible, but, as a brother officer once remarked to me, 
" He had the habit of usually being right in the things that 
matter." 



THE LORD KITCHENER IMEMORIAL BOOK 

During the time it was my privilege to work with him I was 
often greatly struck by his intense patriotism and loyalty. 
He luul but one object in view — that of winning the war. His 
conception of duty was such as invariably to exclude the personal 
factor from the decisions he had to make, and this exclusion was 
not infrequently a source of grief to him, for he was, notwith- 
standing what has been said to the contrary, a most kind-hearted 
man and never forgot those who had rendered him good and 
loyal assistance. I could quote many instances in support 
of this statement. Two such instances formed the subject of a 
conversation I had with him just before he left for Russia, and, 
indeed, his last words to me were : " Remember what I have 
asked you to do about " 

When I was about to join him at the War Office, he said 
to me, " I am not at all the kind of ' K ' some people think 
I am," and that was quite true. The stern, ruthless, overbearing 
character commonly attributed to him had little foundation in 
fact so far as my knowledge of the man goes. I have served 
many chiefs during my 39 years' of army service, and I can 
truthfully say that I have never been brought into contact 
with one who was more easy to serve. He was a tower of 
strength when times were bad and difficulties and anxieties 
arose, and those who enjoyed his confidence, and got behind his 
naturally shy and rather forbidding exterior, knew him to be a 
kind and considerate gentleman, thoroughly honest in word 
and deed. Personally, I feel myself a better man for having 
known him. 

William Robertson. 



LORD KITCHENER-FRIEND OF FRANCE 

BY 

GENERAL DE DIVISION JOFFRE, 

Commandant en Chef des Armies Frangaises 

Comme notre grand Carnot dans les guerres de la Revolution, 
Kitchener merite de porter devant la posterite le surnom 
d'organisateur de la Victoire. 

Partout ou il a passe, en Soudan Egyptien, aux Indes, 
au Transwaal, il a donne la mesure de ses facultes creatrices. 

La Grande Guerre devait lui fournir Toccasion de deployer 
ces facultes sur un terrain plus vaste encore. 

Des le debut des hostilites, avec une vision qu'on doit 
aujourd'hui reconnaitre prophetique des necessites de la lutte ou 
sa patrie etait engagee, il etablit le plan de la nouvelle organisa- 
tion militaire qu'il fallait mettre sur pied ; avec sa volonte 
tenace, sans se laisser rebuter par aucune difficulte d'encadre- 
ment, d'instruction ou d'armement, il realisa le plan qu'il s'etait 
fixe. jNIoins d'un an apres I'ouverture de la campagne, les 
divisions de 1' " Armee Kitchener " se mesuraient sur le con- 
tinent avec I'ennemi. 

Aujourd'hui, elles se battent et le mur allemand vacille 
sous la rude poussee des regiments britanniques. Le soir de 
Bazentin, comme au soir d'Omdurman, Lord Kitchener eut 
connu la joie du triomphe. 

C'est sous le drapeau de la France que ce grand anglais 
avait fait scs premieres armes. C'est pour la gloirc commune de la 
France et de la Grande Bretagne, pour la victoire du droit et de 
la civilisation qu'il est tombe, en soldat. Sa mort m'a frappe 
comme celle d'un ami personnel, et d'un des meilleurs amis dc 
mon pays. 

J. JoFFRE. 

r.2 



LORD KITCHENER-FRIEND OF FRANCE 

BY 

GENERAL J. JOFFRE, 

Com mandcr-in -Chief of the French Army 

Like our great Carnot in the Wars of the Revolution, 
Kitchener deserves to bear for posterity the name of " Organiser 
of Victory." 

Wherever he set foot — in the Egyptian Soudan, in India, 
in the Transvaal — he gave, without stint, of his creative faculties. 

The Great War was to furnish the opportunity for the 
unfolding of these faculties on a still vaster field. 

Right from the outbreak of hostilities, with a vision one 
must now recognise as prophetic, of the necessities of the struggle 
on which his country was engaged, he evolved the scheme of the 
new military organisation that had to be set on foot ; with his 
tenacious will, undaunted by difficulties of organisation, instruc- 
tion or equipment, he carried through the plan he had set himself 
to accomplish. 

Less than a year after the opening of the campaign divisions 
of " Kitchener's Army " were measuring forces with the enemy 
overseas. 

To-day these same British regiments are fighting with a 
push and vigour that is wearing down the German wall before 
them. On the evening of the battle of Bazentin, as on the 
evening of Omdurman, Lord Kitchener would have known the 
joy of victory. 

It was under the flag of France that this great Englishman 
first bore arms. It is for the common glory of France and Great 
Britain that he has fallen, a soldier. His death has struck me as 
that of a personal friend and of one of the best friends of my 
country. 



LORD KITCHENER IN ITALY 

BY 

HIS EXCELLENCY GENERAL COUNT CADORNA, 

Chief of the General Staff of the Italian Army 

E' difficile ricordare Lord Kitchener senza unire istintiva- 
mente alia memoria di quel grande scomparso anche il pensiero del 
magnifico sforzo militare compiuto dal Regno Unito negli ultimi 
due anni. Ai nostri occhi Lord Kitchener impersonava I'lmpero 
Britannico in armi. 

Anche nell'aspetto egli scmbrava raffigurare mirabilmente 
il carattere nazionale dci nostri alleati di oltre Manica : quella 
combinazione di calma serena e di tenace volonta che essi recano 
nella grande impresa comune. Egli comunicava una impressione 
di forza contenuta : si indovinava che era animato da una 
energia illimitata e che nessuna difficolta era capace d'arrestarlo, 
sinche non avesse raggiunta la meta. Ma se un soldato puo 
awenturare un giudizio su di un altro soldato, troppo breve- 
mente conosciuto, vorrei dire che la qualita che ho piu apprezzato 
nel defunto Maresciallo era la sicurezza del suo giudizio. Lord 
Kitchener nc diede indimenticabile prova quando, alio scoppio 
della guerra, ebbe cosi chiara visione del carattere del conflitto 
e della funzione che in esso doveva avere I'lnghilterra. Ma 
anche in occasione della breve visita che Lord Kitchener fece alia 
frontc italiana, nel Novembre del 1915, egli rivelo quella sua 
rapida e sicura facolta di apprezzare una situazionc militare. 
Tornava dalla penisola di Gallipoli dove avcva giudicato dello 
sforzo richiesto a tcner posizioni non molto dissimili da quelle 
sul lembo occidcntale dcU'altopiano carsico, che fissava con 
profondo intercssc dall'osservatorio di M. Quarin. Dopo aver 



TlIK LOrxD KITCHENER MEINIORIAL BOOK 

csaminati) a hmox), in silcnzio, quasi con sorprcsa la muraglia 
pietrosa sulla quale si arranipicavano i soldati italiani, rillustre 
soldato inorlcsc dissc Ic prime autorevoli parole colle quali da 
uno stianiero furono rivelate al mondo Ic speciali diOicolta della 
lotta sulla fronte dell'Isonzo. Noi non abbiamo mai dimcnticato 
il generoso apprezzamento che cgli ebbc da allora per lo sforzo 
italiano. E lo ricordammo specialmente quando, piii tardi, 
il progresso della guerra porto quegli stessi soldati che egli aveva 
visto all'opera, nella sua visita, sei miglia innanzi al di la del 
bastione che aveva giudicato cosi aspro da superare. E il 
nostro piu vivo ramuiarico, nell'ora del successo, fu che egli non 
fosse piu tra noi, ad allietarsene, col suo gran cuore di soldato. 

n lutto in Italia per la scomparsa di Lord Kitchener fu anche 
pill vivo poiche si sapeva quanto nel mio paese come a Londra, 
dove fui suo ospite, egli si fosse adoprato a rendere piu stretti i 
vineoli fra gli alleati. Egli fu uno degli artefici della fronte 
uniea : e questo non sara dei minori meriti del grande scomparso. 

In Lord Kitchener, quale io lo conobbi, il diplomatico non 
era meno grande del soldato. E le sue qualita di soldato non 
contrastavano con le doti istintive che lo rendevano un perfetto 
ambasciatore del Regno Unito presso gli eserciti della grande 
alleanza. Anzi egli traeva dalla sua abitudine militare di mis- 
urare francamente le difficolta, quella che deve essere la qualita 
suprema della diplomazia in tempo di guerra : di non essere 
cioe timida, ma ardimentosa ed essenziale. 

L. Cadorna. 



LORD KITCHENER IN ITALY 

BY 

HIS EXCELLENCY GENERAL COUNT CADORNA, 

Chief of the General Staff of the Italian Army 

Inevitably and instinctively, recalling the great figure of 
Lord Kitchener, there comes to mind the magnificent military 
effort made by the United Kingdom during the last two years. 
To us Lord Kitchener personified the British Empire in arms. 

Even in his appearance he seemed to give a wonderful 
reproduction of the national character of our Allies beyond the 
Channel : that combination of calm serenity and unshakable 
will which they contribute to the great common enterprise. 
He communicated an impression of controlled strength : one 
divined that he was inspired by a limitless energy, that no 
difficulty could stay him until he had reached the goal. But, 
if a soldier may hazard an estimate of another soldier, known 
to him for all too short a time, I would say that the quality 
which I most appreciated in the late Field-Marshal was the 
sureness of his judgment. Lord Kitchener gave an unforget- 
table proof of this quality when, on the outbreak of the war, 
he showed so clear a vision of the nature of the struggle and of 
the part in it which England had to play. And, on the occasion 
of his short visit to the Italian front, in November, 1915, Lord 
Kitchener again revealed his rapid and certain gift of gauging 
a military situation. He had just arrived from the peninsula of 
Gallipoli, where he had formed his estimate of the effort necessary 
to hold positions not greatly dissimilar from those on the western 
edge of the Carso plateau, towards which he gazed, with deep 
interest, from the observation post on Monte Quarin. After he 



THE LOUD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

had exaiiiinctl k-ntjthily, silently, almost with surprise, the rocky 
rampart up whieh tlie soldiers of Italy were clambering, the 
illustrious British soldier uttered the first authoritative words 
which revealed to the world, by the mouth of a foreigner, the 
special dilViculties of the struggle on the Isonzo front. We have 
m\-er forgotten the generous appreciation he showed, from that 
tinu' forward, of the Itahan effort. We remembered it specially 
wlun later on the progress of the war brought those same soldiers, 
whom he had seen at work during his visit, six miles beyond the 
bastion wliieh he had judged so hard to pass. And it was our 
keenest reiiret in the dav of our success that he was no more 
amongst us to rejoice at it, with that great soldier's heart of his. 

The mourning in Italy for Lord Kitchener's death w^as all 
the more deep because we knew how much, in my country as well 
as in London, where I w^as his guest, he had laboured to render 
closer the ties between the Allies. He was one of the makers 
of the single front : and this will not be among the least of his 
titles to honour. 

In Lord Kitchener, as I knew^ him, the diplomat was not 
less great than the soldier. And his qualities as a soldier were 
far from being in conflict with those instinctive gifts which 
made him an ideal Ambassador of the United Kingdom to the 
Armies of the Great Alliance. On the contrary, he drew from 
his military habit of measuring difficulties frankly what should 
be the supreme quality of diplomacy in time of war — that it 
should not be timid, but bold and direct. 



LORD KITCHENER AT GALLIPOLI 

BY 

LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR WILLIAM R. BIRDWOOD, 
K.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., C.B., CLE., D.S.O., 

Cnmmmuhr. First Anzac Army Corps 

In November, 1915, when a decision was necessary as to 
the future course of the Allied operations in the Gallipoli Penin- 
sula, Lord Kitchener journeyed east to see the situation for 
himself and to obtain the first-hand knowledge for judgment. 
On the 10th of the month he arrived on H.M.S Dartmouth 
at Imbros, the headquarters of the Dardanelles Army and of the 
Eastern Mediterranean Squadron, under the command of Vice- 
Admiral de Robeck. From there he proceeded to visit the 
positions held by the British and French troops. 

This is not the place to discuss the military aspect of his 
visit. 

Needless to say it was very necessary to preserve as secret 
the Field-Marshal's presence, and it is equally needless to say 
that we were all deeply concerned for his personal safety. 

The first position to be visited by Lord Kitchener was that 
at Cape Helles, where he arrived on board H.M. Destroyer 
Laforey on the 12th. He was met by General Davies, who 
pointed out the situation. At Cape Helles the beaches and piers 
were a considerable distance from Turkish observation, but this 
fact did not completely relieve us of all anxiety for Lord 
Kitchener's safety, as heavy shells from " Asia " were always 
liable to be directed on incoming boats, and the beaches were 
fired on at irregular intervals. It was, however, most unlikely 
that the Turks would be abl(> to identify the steam-boat which 
took him ashore. A higli wind was blowing too, and it was 
probable that the guns would not be very active. A landing 
was effected on the beach which the Lancashire Fusiliers have 
made so famous. From the top of the cliff near the aerodrome 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL ROOK 

Goncral Davios was able to orivc Lord Kilcliciicr a complete 
ti^eiural view of the whole of the battleiield, reaehiiig away to Achi 
Raba in tlu- distance, with the village of Krithia and the lines 
of opposing trenches in front of it, marked out with shell bursts 
as clearly as by flags on a map. From there we went over to 
the right, to the position so long and bravely held by our staunch 
Allies. Near a large dismounted Turkish gun, which had been 
" knocked out " by the big guns of the Queen Elizabeth eleven 
months earlier, Lord Kitchener met the gallant General Rrulard, 
who was in command of the French troops on the Peninsula. 
General Rrulard showed him over the old castle of Sedd-el-Rahr, 
with its enormous stone walls pierced through and through by 
the shells of our fleet, and pointed out to him the Turkish 
positions across the Straits from which were sent daily greetings 
to us in the way of large shells from " Asia." 

Excepting the officers who actually met Lord Kitchener 
there, his visit to Cape Helles was practically unknown, and it 
was not until he re-embarked that the news of his arrival spread. 
Little opportunity was afforded the troops, therefore, of giving 
him a welcome. 

The following day Lord Kitchener visited the area held by 
the Australian and New Zealand troops to the north of Gaba 
Tepe. Landing here was a much more anxious matter, as boats 
leaving the destroyer must be within sight of the enemy almost 
up to the shore, and the Turkish batteries, which were constantly 
firing on the Anzac beaches, could, and frequently used to, shell 
any destroyer that came within range of the shore. News 
which leaks out in neutral countries travels fast and far, and it 
was of course possible that the Turks may have heard of the 
Field-Marshal's visit and would be on the look-out. A landing 
was effected peacefully, however. 

There were few at Anzac besides General Godley, who met 
him, who knew of Lord Kitchener's impending visit, but some- 
how, as his tall figure strode up the jetty, the knowledge spread 
like fire in dry grass. From every dug-out on the hillside 
tumbled Australians and New Zealanders, stumbling over scrub 



LORD KITCHENER AT GALLIPOLI 

and sandbank, and a crowd quickly grew upon the beach and 
the sandy slope above it. 

The Australian and New Zealander are too true to British 
type to be demonstrative normally, for Lord Kitchener was a 
Great Master to each one of them, and they were determined to 
pay him homage. It was a quite spontaneous demonstration, 
and pleased Lord Kitchener more, I dare say, than he would have 
cared to show. Wherever he went, the ovation which broke out 
from the men was such as to make one anxious lest the Turks 
should notice it and guess the cause. At some points, where 
the enemy were only a few yards away, it was with difficulty 
that they' were prevented from cheering. The men were dressed 
in their ordinary working garb, and Lord Kitchener seemed 
unusually at home amongst this crowd of toilers. The strong, 
interested face of the one gazing on the intent weather-tanned 
countenances of the others, as he questioned them and told them 
the King's message, made a picture not readily forgotten. 

The best place from which to see the greater part of Anzac 
and to understand it was from Russell's Top, up the steep 
climb of Walker's Ridge, and at no distance from the Turkish 
lines themselves. Lord Kitchener went straight to the top — a 
climb which used to try many of those at Anzac during the hot 
summer — and spoke to the brigadiers and other officers when 
he reached the summit. He insisted on visiting several awkward 
corners, where his tall form was only too likely to be noticed by 
the Turkish snipers, who were usually very alert. 

On his way down, in one of the gullies, a long queue was 
noticed. Lord Kitchener asked them what they were doing 
there, and when told that they were trying to buy at the canteen, 
he said he hoped they were getting all they wanted. An elderly 
Australian then came forward and replied that the only thing 
they could get there was a few nuts, and that he personally had 
no teeth with which to crack them— a reply which amused Lord 
Kitchener immensely and extorted from him the promise that 
he would see that canteen stores and vegetables were sent over 
as soon as possible 



TKE LORD KITCHF.NER MEMORIAL BOOK 

On llu" 1-ttli Suvln was visited, but here the landing was 
not un(ler quitt^ \hv sanu' close observation, although it was 
^•erv open to \hc Turkish l)atteries. The day was a very rough 
<ine, l)Kn\ino- up tor tlie storm which later cast nearly all the 
piei-s on the Peninsula u}) on the beaches, and strewed the fore- 
shoi*e with the wreckage of the small craft. Alas ! as after 
events have shown, the rough sea had no terrors for Lord 
Kitchener, wlio was perfectly happy on the deck of a destroyer 
when tlu^ majority of his staff was very much the opposite. The 
journey in the picket boat from the destroyer to the shore was, 
however, very diiVieult and slow, and left Lord Kitchener only 
a short time to go inland with General Byng, who met him and ex- 
plained the situation in that area from the lieights near the beach, 
from which an excellent view of the country was obtainable. 

At all three places Lord Kitchener seemed to appraise the 
situation at a glance. The complex and laborious defences — 
especially at Anzac — were certainly a surprise to him, and he 
repeatedly expressed admiration for the amount of good work 
which he saw had been put in everywhere. He remarked also 
that until he had actually seen the positions it was not possible 
for him fully to appreciate the great difficulties which had to be 
overcome in effecting the landing and holding on afterwards, as 
the troops had done everywhere. To several small groups of 
men he remarked : " You have done wonderfully good work 
here. Don't think for a moment that you have failed ; you 
have fully done your part in upholding the British flag and 
British honour here, where you have fought so well." 

To many soldiers of the Old Army and of the New — to 
Teiritorials, Yeomanry and the men of Australia and New 
Zealand, the recollection of their glimpse of the great Field- 
Marshal will ever be a proud and cherished memory. He came 
to see for himself the position of the troops whose future was 
under discussion. The future was fraught with many possi- 
bilities, but Lord Kitchener's visit gave to us all, as it did to the 
whole British Empire, a feeling of complete confidence in his 
judgment and decision. ^_ j,_ Birdwood 



LORD KITCHENER AT GALLIPOLI 

[Copy of Order issued by General Birdwood when Lord 
Kitchener left the Peninsula.] 

November 25th, 1915. 

Lord Kitchener has desired me to convey to the AustraHan 
and New Zealand Army Corps a message with which he was 
specially entrusted by the King to bring to our Army Corps. 

His Majesty commanded Lord Kitchener to express his 
high appreciation of the gallant and unflinching conduct of our 
men through fighting which has been as hard as any yet seen in 
the war, and His Majesty wishes to express his complete confi- 
dence in the determination and the fighting qualities of our men 
to assist in carrying this war to an entirely successful determi- 
nation. 

Lord Kitchener has ordered me to express to all the very 
great pleasure it gave him to have the opportunity, which he 
considers a privilege, of visiting Anzac to see for himself some 
of the wonderfully good work which has been done by the 
officers and men of our Army Corps, as it was not until he had 
himself seen the positions we had captured and held that he was 
able fully to realise the magnitude of the work which had been 
accomplished. Lord Kitchener much regretted that time did 
not permit of his seeing the whole corps, but he was very pleased 
to see a considerable proportion of officers and men and to find 
all in such good heart, and so confidently embued with that 
grand spirit which has carried them through all their trials and 
many dangerous feats of arms — a spirit which he is quite confi- 
dent that they will maintain to the end, until they have taken 
their full share in completely overthrowing our enemies. 

Boys ! we may all well be proud to receive such messages, 
and it is up to all of us to live up to them and prove their truth: 

(Signed) W. R. Birdwood. 



LORD KITCHENER'S LAST MILITARY 
FUNCTION 

BY 

BRIGADIER-GENERAL W. F. CLEEVE, 
C.B., 

Commandant, Royal Military Academy, Woolwich 

The late Field-Marshal Earl Kitchener of Khartoum, in his 
capaeity of Secretary of State for War, carried out the inspection 
of the Gentleman Cadets, Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, 
on May 25th, and this was his last military official appearance. 
He was received with a general salute by the Battalion of 
Gentlemen Cadets, drawn up in line on the front parade under 
conmiand of the senior under-officer of cadets. 

When K. of K. entered the " Shop " enclosure on May 25th 
he did so for the first time since he had left it as a G.C. awaiting 
his Commission in the R.E. in 1870 — forty-six years ago — and he 
was quick to notice various structural changes. " When did the 
old Lodge disappear ? " was one of his first questions. The 
Lodge disappeared in 1878, when the front enclosure was ex- 
tended by taking in a piece of the Common, previous to which 
a " ha-ha " ditch parallel to the front hne of the building and 
just excluding the big trees on the cricket ground was the north 
boundary of the grounds. The Lodge stood on the left of the 
then entrance gate, which was in the middle of this boundary. 
" The cobble stones have gone, too," he remarked, for the 
cemented frontage of the " Shop " was then cobbled with large 
stones up to its present boundary line, and these only disappeared 
in comparatively modern times. 

" The old ' Shop ' seems very much the same,'* although he 
had then noticed nearly every addition. 

Yes, the " Shop " is the same ; it still maintains and adds to 
its traditions and it still turns out officers in the embryo stage 



LORD KITCHENER'S LAST jMILITARY FUNCTION 

who it trusts to support and add to those traditions, and who are 
as hkely as any other young men entering the service of their 
country to produce future Kitcheners. 

The Field-Marshal was much struck by the *' saddle ride " 
and the different stamps of horse ridden by the G.C.'s on that 
occasion. *' That horse has some points of an Arab about him " 
(Dynamite), and one or two others in the ride not so showy 
perhaps as the little chestnut were remarked on. 

At the conclusion of the proceedings his lordship presented 
the sword for good conduct and efficiency to the senior under- 
officer, and signed his name in the visitors' book, as also did the 
officers of his Staff, including the late Colonel O. A. G. FitzGerald, 
C.IM.G. He was also shown the Volume of the " Long Roll " of 
Cadets, wherein his name, date of joining and leaving (1868-1870), 
etc., is entered, as are the names of all G.C.'s. 

On leaving to return to London, the great soldier said how 
pleased he had been with what he had seen and with the oppor- 
tunity of again seeing the old " Shop." His remarks in addressing 
the Senior Class and presenting the Sword of Honour to S. U. O. 
Howell are not likely to be forgotten by his hearers — in exhorting 
them to put " duty " first, to learn their profession, and to set an 
example to those under them. The speaker himself was a 
unique example of devotion to duty and the service of his country, 
for he devoted his lifetime to it, and, as far as the public could 
know, seemed to have as it were no private existence. This, of 
course, cannot be altogether so in the case of any man, but it 
came very near it in the case of our illustrious soldier. 

G.C.'s who were inspected by " K. of K." on May 25th will 
very soon all have started as commissioned officers ; they can 
have no finer example of devotion to their country's service than 
that which stood before them on May 25th in the person of 
Horatio Herbert Kitchener. 

W. F. Cleeve. 




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LUKIJ KITCIIKNKIJ AS A HABV ON HIS MOTHKU's 
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AND HIS SISTER (NOW MRS. E. J. PARKER) 

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or I.AKENIIEATII 

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LORD KITCHKNKR AS A CADET AT THK 
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LORD KITCHKNliR AND HIS YOUNGEST 

BROTHER, WHO ULTIMATELY BECAME 

A GENERAL 

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J'.IUT.\NNIA. •SIKDAH! I THANK YOU! I AM I'liori) OF YOU ! " 

It was r-.t merely a «rfat victory for Kwi-t anrl Orea*; Hritain. Imt it was a «reat victory forcivilisation." 

( l.urd HoK'hiry at r>rt I ,()ct<ibir H. limes Ilepor.J 



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.{59 







THE LAST WICKET. 
KiteJtener {Caplaiji and Wicket-keeper). "He has kept us in thp: field a deuce of a time; hut we'ul (jet 

HIM NOW WE'VE (:Lf)SED IN FOR CATCHES ! " 



lifproiJuce'l by raurtfsy of the Propn'rtors of " I'unrli 



LORD KITCHENER AS I KNEW HIM 

BY 

THE MARQUIS DE CHASSELOUP LAUBAT, 

Charge de Missions et Negociations Techniques Aupres du Gouvernement 

Britannique 



It is a great honour to be requested to write upon the late and 
deeply regretted Lord Kitchener, but it is also a very dangerous 
task at the present time, especially for a Frenchman who must 
express his thoughts in English : immortal deeds ought to be 
recorded in immortal words only. The man was so strong and 
so powerful, and his work has been so great, that posterity alone 
can judge them both with impartiality long after the echo of the 
last shots of this world-sti-uggle has died away. Besides, I can 
say only a small part of what I saw and what I know, and, even 
with this restriction, I must be very careful, as it is yet too soon 
publicly to state certain facts. But if I may not be able to say 
everything I know and think, at all events, everything I say will 
be the expression of what I think and know. 



I shall betray no State secrets if I say here that in July, 1914, 
the Germanic Powers had made — or thought they had made — 
every possible preparation to attain a speedy and crushing 
victory, while the Allies were, on the whole, more or less unready. 
The British naval strength was, of course, immensely superior 
to the Austro-Gcrman forces, in all types of fighting ship, light 
or heavy, in geographical situation, in coaling stations, in the 
professional quality of the officers and of the men, and in the 
potentialities resulting from mercantile marine, fishing craft, 
and the deeply rooted instincts and traditions of a sailor race ; 
nevertheless it had not made sufficient preparations against the 
dangerous possibilities of mines and of submarine warfare. 



THE LORD KITCIIF.NER MEIMORIAI. BOOK 

The FiiiK'li army was good aiul had in its field artillery a fighting 
loicc unequalled anywhere : Init it was sadly lacking in heavy 
nuHiern cjuiek-iiring arlillery and in machine guns ; moreover, 
it had an insufiicient number of well-trained ofiicers and non- 
ei^nmiissioned oiTieers for its reserves. Though the Russians 
luul a lirst line army, well prepared on the whole, they suffered 
from the same deficiencies as their Western Continental ally. 
The British were able to send nt once to France an expeditionary 
force good and well equipj^ed, but too small for its task ; besides 
no adequate preparations had been made to sw^ell the first hundred 
thousai\d rapidly to the proportions required for a world-struggle. 

If the military and naval preparation of the Allies was 
unsatisfactory, their political and moral situation was even worse. 
People seemed most strangely to have forgotten the role played by 
the Ilanseatie League before the Thirty Years' War and the 
methods used by that famous organisation to achieve its aims. In 
England, France, and Russia it w^as possible to w^atch the nefarious 
progress of anti-national and anti-patriotic forces, sometimes 
cleverly hidden, and sometimes working in broad daylight. They 
seemed more or less directly under German control, or in close 
touch with Germany and its sympathisers. The double process of 
the internationalisation of capital and of labour was advancing 
with giant strides : the heads of the banking interests and the 
leaders of the labour unions seemed more and more to forget 
that after all the one supremely important thing is the greatness 
and strength of a nation, and that Applied Science, Capital, and 
Labour are indispensable elements of strength and of success. 

In the Allied countries many wTiters and politicians believed, 
or j^retended to believe, that w^ar, because it is awful, had 
become impossible in the present stage of civilisation. They 
believed, or pretended to believe, in the supreme and all-powerful 
virtue of reason and of peace conferences ; and too often all 
their energies were absorbed by schemes which seemed likely 
to end in developing civil strife. They were fast forgetting that 
passions and not reason have always governed mankind, that 
the chief use of gold is to get iron to defend its owner, and that, 
as a worthy Dutch citizen of The Flague once said to me, " In 
normal times never is the peace of the world in such danger as 
when exalted gentlemen assemble in a peace congress, unless, 
of course, the questions to be discussed are of no importance 
whatsoever." They were fast forgetting that Right without 



LORD KITCHENER 

Might does not (alas !) count for much, and that the greatest of 
blessings — peace with freedom and with honour — belongs only to 
nations who show themselves worthy of it by cheerfully accepting 
every sacrifice to keep it. They v. ere thus assuming as regards 
this world-catastrophe formidable responsibilities second only to 
those which rest upon the German War Party. 

From an industrial point of view the position was still more 
alarming. Facilities given to German importers were pushed so 
far that gradually Germany was getting, and had already in a 
certain degree secured, if not a monopoly, at least an enormous 
superiority in a great many raw materials and finished products 
necessary for war. Technical education was often too theoretical 
in France and too deficient in general ideas in England : the 
Germans, more than any other people, seemed capable of 
developing equally agriculture and forestry, industry and com- 
merce, of binding together theory and practice, and of uniting 
science, capital, and labour for the welfare of their Fatherland. 
Germanic influences had increased everywhere by leaps and 
bounds, and had dug themselves so deeply into our soil that they 
still seem alive after more than two years of war. 



As regards the result of the outbreak of a war, before 
hostilities began, and in the early days of the actual fighting, 
I had made up my mind that one of two hypotheses was most 
likely to be correct. In the last twenty years the powers that 
be had not kept up to a sufficient standard of efficiency the 
military arsenals and the necessary industrial establishments 
south of the Loire and the Plateau Central, those Central Hills 
which have always formed the last and greatest natural stronghold 
of Gallic and French independence ; either, therefore, the struggle 
would be of very short duration, and then France, surprised by 
a series of stunning blows delivered in quick succession, would 
probably collapse before she could recover herself; or the war, 
lasting a very long time, must become more and more a struggle 
of attrition pure and simple, like the war of Secession, and must 
ultimately end by the victory of the Allies — provided, of course, 
we held together, we went on fighting, and we knew how to pool, 
economise, and utilise properly our vast resources. 

The Battle of tlie Marne relieved us of the nightmare of the 

D2 



THE T.ORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

first hypothesis becoming an historieal fact. Therefore, when I 
arrived in London at ihe befrinnins; of October, 1014, 1 determined, 
once for all and come what may, that I wonld secnre, not for the 
next tew weeks, as I was then requested to do, but for the 
duration of the whole war, and at any rate for more than two 
years, the raw material necessary for high explosives ; I also 
determined, once for all and come what may, that of those raw 
materials I would secure not the small parcels which official 
experts were then contemplating, but the huge quantities enabling 
us to make supplies of high explosives to an extent hitherto 
unimagined and enabling our artillery to create what I described 
as " cataclysmic effects " — or local earthquakes. 

This was by no means an easy task. In France there was 
a deep but unfounded belief that the hostilities could not last 
more than a few months, because it was thought that modern 
conditions of civilisation would make it impossible for a nation 
to stand such a strain for any length of time. In England the 
same error was equally widespread, but it was due to quite 
different reasons. During the last twenty or thirty years a whole 
school of writers and historians, of whom the most brilliant is 
certainly Mahan, had spread among the British public the false 
idea that naval supremacy is everything and that it was alone 
capable of securing a quick and complete victory. It was com- 
pletely lost sight of that in the life-and-death struggles of nations 
the chief factor is that of man -power, for the simple reason that 
of all the machines necessary to fight a war, man is the most 
important and also takes the longest time to make. Napoleon fell 
because he could not replace the huge numbers of splendid fighting 
men whom he had lost during the long Spanish war and especially 
in the invasion of Russia. The Southern States were crushed 
by the North simply because when Lee surrendered to Grant at 
Appomatox he could get no more men to shoulder rifles or to 
fire guns. And the Central Alliance will lose this war, if we go 
on fighting the necessary time, because ultimately, in spite of 
the development of mechanical appliances, they will become 
deficient in man-power. Yet I do not want to belittle the 
role and the value of sea-power : it is certainly an important 
factor and a cause of victory, but alone it cannot secure the 
defeat of Germany. Victory is impossible for us without sea- 
power ; but it would also be impossible if we relied on sea-power 
only ; we must have the superiority on sea, on land, and also 



LORD KITCHENER 

in the air. In fact, we must have an overwhelming superiority 
everywhere. 

As these false ideas were common amongst the Allies, I 
was not at first successful, and I should have ultimately failed, 
in circumstances where failure would have been disastrous, 
had not the whole matter been taken up on my urgent representa- 
tions by the two men who were in the best position to act and who 
had the same ideas as I had — the French Ambassador and the 
late British Secretary of State for War. 

Then I really did see what Kitchener was and what he 
could do. The man who first had the intelligence and the common 
sense to understand, and the courage to say openly to the British 
public that England must face a three years' war and raise an 
army of three million men, readily took the view that at all 
costs and come what may he must furnish France with the 
raw materials then obtainable in England only and absolutely 
indispensable to the manufacture of those explosives which 
were, and still are, a question of life and death for us. 

I do not feel justified in saying what was done nor exactly 
how it was done. I shall simply state that Lord Kitchener 
studied a most intricate and delicate question with which he 
had never dealt before, that he mastered it, saw what was to 
be done, and, in spite of many difficulties and much opposition, 
took, and alone took, the full responsibility of doing it. Sub- 
sequently he did not rest satisfied in solving these problems 
concerning France alone ; he dealt with the munitions necessary 
for other Allies, and therein took responsibilities which he alone 
dared to take, and signed documents which he alone dared to 
sign. The invaluable services which he thus rendered our 
Coalition would alone be sufficient to save the name of any man 
from oblivion. 



From the early days of November, 1914, when Monsieur Paul 
Cambon officially introduced me to Lord Kitchener and when I 
first put before him those vital problems, until June 2nd, 1916, 
when I saw him for the last time, I had with the late Secretary 
for War a great many conferences and conversations, which, 
though generally short, were sometimes very long. I had 
therefore opportunities to form of Lord Kitchener an opinion 
which grew deeper and deeper in my mind as I saw more and 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEINIORIAL BOOK 

more of him. Lord Kitchener's principal eliaracteristics were 
his common sense, his will, and his sincerity. 

* * ^ :ic :|c ^ 

The late Secretary for War possessed in the highest degree 
that gift of common sense which is so rare in spite of its name. 
His mind seemed always to be directed automatically towards 
truth, and to be attracted by it, as the needle of the compass 
is automatically directed towards the Polar Star and attracted 
by the North Pole. In fact, though Kitchener may have com- 
mitted some errors of detail, he has generally been quite right 
in his forecasts of the war : he foresaw, for instance, the long 
duration of the struggle and the formidable military effort 
which England must accomplish ; his optimism ever since the 
Battle of the JVIarne led him to believe, as he often repeated 
to me, that the great French victory would give the British 
and the Russian Empires the time necessary to organise and 
utilise their gigantic resources which would ultimately defeat 
the German ; he stated in the autumn of 1915 that the Germans 
on the Russian front had almost shot their bolt ; he felt that 
the powerful offensive of the Austrians would be unsuccessful 
against the courageous resistance of the Italians ; he was con- 
vinced that the most furious onslaughts of the best German 
troops would break against Verdun, for the defenders of which 
he showed the deepest admiration. In all those forecasts and 
opinions Kitchener was right and clearly saw where the truth 
was ; and in the dark hours through which we passed in 1914 and 
1915 how often did he tell me, with his quiet smile, " The 
Germans cannot win." 

I should also add that further events will show that the 
Allies will have fought Germany in vain, unless they manage to 
devise and follow — as Lord Kitchener often advocated in private 
conversations — a policy which will for a very long period uphold 
both their national and their common economic interests. 

****** 

In the recruiting problem he seems to have certainly 
followed the right track. Like all men who have carefully 
studied the history of the French Army, he knew that my father 
was the statesman who in 1871 and 1872 drew up the first French 
Universal Conscription law : he therefore often spoke to me of 
that subject, and was especially anxious to know whether I 



LORD KITCHENER 

had confidential information as to the length of time the French 
considered necessary in 1871 for a general conscription law to 
produce serious results; and he was most interested when I 
explained to him the reasons why the answer was about seventeen 
years. 

From what he told me he seemed to have come to the 
conclusion that in England conscription must necessarily come 
sooner or later — but the later the better. This opinion can, of 
course, be disputed. It can be argued that if conscription had 
become a law in August, 1914, our Coalition would have secured 
many advantages : the moral effect ; the more effective hunting 
out of shirkers ; and especially the possibility of preventing the 
enlistment of skilled mechanics, who on no account ought ever 
to have been allowed to go to the front. But we must not 
forget that conscription is one thing and the organisation of 
munition war work is quite another. Prussia had had universal 
conscription since 1807, and France since 1872 ; in both these 
countries the mobilisation and the concentration of gigantic 
armies in August, 1914, worked out very well — a fact greatly 
to the credit of the French Staff, who had not, like their German 
opponents, had the benefit of the previous experiences of 1864, 
1866 and 1870. Yet in Germany, and especially in France, 
the opinion that the war must be a short one had prevented 
both Governments from preparing the organisation of war- 
munition work. It is by no means certain that if England had 
adopted conscription in August, 1914, she could have managed 
to secure in a couple of years the results which Prussia took 
a century and France forty-one years to accomplish. On the 
whole, it seems that Kitchener and the British Government 
acted wisely in not hurriedly taking a step of which the prema- 
ture adoption might have brought many more and far greater 
evil results than good : though, of course, Lord Roberts's scheme, 
had it been adopted in time, would have prevented this war, 
and would in future give the British Empire, as a similar system 
does to Switzerland, the maximum strength at the minimum 
cost. On the whole, it seems that conscription was brought 
in at the right moment — that is to say, when everyone, though 
admiring the magnificent response of the British Empire to 
Lord Kitchener's call for voluntary soldiers, had come to the 
conclusion that compulsory universal service must become a 
law in order to get the requisite number of men, and to show tlic 



Tin: IA)HD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

world at largo that Crcat Britain was dcterinincd in order to win 
till' war to accept every sacrilicc of blood, treasure, and personal 
liberty. 

9|C 3|C 9|C 9|C 3|C 3|C 

The strong will and quiet determination of Lord Kitchener 
were equally wonderful, as I have seen in many cases, especially 
in what he did for us regarding the supplies of explosives and 
arrangements made to cut down their prices to the reasonable 
level which I defined by the sentence " Prices high enough to 
encourage bo7ia fide production, and low enough to discourage 
speculation." It was really a fine thing to see Kitchener 
attacking a difficulty. Once he had begun, he never stopped 
until he had reached his aim ; in discussion his strong mind 
never wandered in wdld dreams nor in shapeless and vague 
possibilities. When he occupied the chair he always let everyone 
freely and openly state their point, and often seemed quite 
delighted when the opinions expressed were in direct and flat 
contradiction with his own. But he would not allow anyone 
to fall back upon vague and senseless generalities in order to 
disguise unpalatable facts and to avoid unpleasant and dangerous 
responsibilities. He stuck to his point, and he obliged other 
people to stick to it. Digression, especially if he suspected it 
to be systematic, absolutely enraged him ; first he gave signs 
of restiveness which to those who knew^ him well meant that a 
storm was fast approaching ; then, after an interval of time 
which generally was very short, the unfortunate man, who had 
thought himself very clever by trying to lead the discussion 
astray, received such a look and heard such a lion's growl that 
he wished he was not there. 

It was by no means easy to push or brush Kitchener aside 
when he had made up his mind that, in order to bring questions 
to a successful issue, he must be the leader. Once on the eve 
of an important international conference there were some 
discussions as to who was to occupy the chair : some people 
thought that Kitchener could not ; and some other people 
thought that perhaps it might be offered to him. Whether the 
late Secretary for War had or not a suspicion of those rumours, 
I cannot say. But I know w^hat happened. When the meeting 
began. Kitchener did not wait for anyone to offer him the 
chair ; he walked up to it, sat dow^n in it, and kept it, presiding 
over the discussion in his usual manner. 



LORD KITCHENER 

Kitchener had a long memory, and, hke a Japanese Samurai, 
had as much faithfulness in his affection and friendship as tenacity 
in his contempt and hatred. He was very prudent and guarded 
in his speech. He fully endorsed what a Frenchman once said : 
" The word you have not yet spoken is your slave ; the word 
you have just said is your master." * Kitchener spoke quietly, in 
a low tone, and with that peculiar apparent effort which is often 
the characteristic of strong men whose words are the beginning of 
action and give hsteners the impression of action itself. Nobody 
more than he proved how true are the well-known words : 
" Solitude is the home of the strong ; silence their prayer." f 
He liked and enjoyed solitude and silence for their own sake. 
Whenever he had to take one of those momentous decisions upon 
which the future of the war might depend, he almost invariably 
forgot for a short time his surroundings and immerged himself 
into silence and solitude, in which he seemed to hear friendly 
voices and see guiding stars — silence and solitude in which he 
entrenched himself, as in an impregnable fortress, wherefrom his 
will and decision sallied forth with recuperated strength and 
increased energy. 

Though Kitchener took no hand in home politics and 
exclusively devoted all his energies to serving his King and 
Country, he rendered full justice to efforts which he considered 
honest and well meant : the work done by his colleagues of 
the Cabinet or by the leaders of the Allies ; straightforward 
and reasonable criticism in committees, in Parliament, or in 
the Press ; and especially courageous fighting, wherever that 
might be. But perhaps the strongest and finest characteristic 
of Kitchener's mind was his love of truth and his sincerity : 
he had for lies and for liars an unbounded contempt, a deep 
hatred, and a kind of real physical repulsion. His increasing 
enmity against the Teutonic Powers was not caused so much 
by the war itself as by the conviction that the Germans, in 
spite of their great qualities, had placed themselves outside 
humanity by their unclean fighting, their perjuries, and lies. 
To sum up. Kitchener was in the highest sense of the word a 
Christian gentleman who tiiistcd gentlemen only. 

* " La i)arole que vous n'avez pas encore prononcee est votre csclave; celle que 
voas vencz dc dire t-st votrc iiuiii re." 

t Perc (\c liiivigiijin : "Im solitude est la patrie des forts; le silence Icur 
priere." 



TIIK LORD; KITCHF.XER MEMORIAL BOOK 

Hut I do not say tluit Kitchener never made any mistakes : 
he would he tlie very last man to put forward such a preposterous 
elaiiu. lie nnist take his share (whatever that share may be) 
of responsibility in the Allies' mistakes, of which the two greatest 
are well known : the unnecessary delay in befrinning to organise 
a sullieiently large output of guns, rifles, machine-guns, and 
anmumition ; and the strange policy consisting of a mixture of 
rash adventure, of incredible credulity, and of unaccountable 
weakness in the Eastern Mediterranean which has resulted in 
the Dardanelles failure, the terrible and undeserved sufferings 
of Serbia and Montenegro, the German control of the vast 
stretch of land extending from Berlin to Bagdad, and the great 
loss of prestige of the Entente Powers in the Near East. But 
we must not overlook the fact that the errors committed derive 
less from the incapacity of individuals than from those political 
and administrative conceptions and systems which so seldom 
allow the right man to be put in the right place. In that respect, 
Kitchener is more a victim than a culprit. 

Surely he was not responsible for the lack of general prepara- 
tion and forethought which, during the first months of the war, 
caused the appalling conditions I witnessed in Paris, Bordeaux, 
and London — to say nothing of Petrograd, where, according to 
all available and trustworthy information, things were probably 
still worse. What I then saw I shall never forget : disorder ; 
confusion ; contradictions ; idle talk and empty speeches ; wild 
nmiours ; inefliciency ; hand-to-mouth administration ; swarms 
of objectionable intermediaries, of cranks, and of crooks ; failure 
of so many official experts ; evil influences which tended to oust 
competent men and to put at the head of great departments 
people who did not know anything about their jobs and whose 
chief preoccupation was to shirk responsibility. Let us hope that 
future historians will not forget all this ; though I very much 
doubt whether they will sufficiently take it into account ; for I 
do not believe that any man who was not there can realise what 
we had to go through, nor the infernal toil of Sisyphus which we 
did the whole day and the best part of the night. The extra- 
ordinary thing is that in such conditions we managed to survive 
and to pull through. We may therefore believe that the work 
done by the Allies compares favourably with that of our enemies, 
who certainlv have made terrible mistakes themselves since 
June, 1914. 



LORD KITCHENER 

Germany was fast getting, without running the risk of a war, 
all or nearly all the advantages of a great victory. What would 
have happened if the Kaiser had maintained the triumphant 
German peace secured by his grandfather in 1871 and which for 
the rest of Europe was perhaps more dangerous than a war ? 
What would have been the consequences for France if Germany, 
instead of starting about 1900 a naval competition with Great 
Britain — the result of which was a foregone conclusion — had at 
that time really applied universal military service and thereby 
had been able to hurl in August, 1914, upon our Army, already 
outnumbered, a few hundred thousand more men ? The 
mysterious Sarajevo affair gave the Germanic Powers the long 
expected opportunity to get the upper hand in the Balkans. 
What would have happened if the two Kaisers had accepted the 
submission of Serbia ? Or, wishing to push things farther, if 
they had declared war upon Serbia alone ? What would have 
been the consequences of such a policy which would have forced 
the Tsar to declare war upon Austria and Germany or to submit 
his country to an irretrievable and unacceptable humiliation, 
causing most probably a dangerous internal situation ? What 
would have happened if the French democracy had been 
compelled to choose between either breaking the Russian 
Alliance or fighting without the help of England an apparently 
offensive war for the Balkan question about which Western 
Europe, on the whole, knew as little as it cared, in spite of its 
importance ? 

The Teutonic Powers began the war with a sublime confi- 
dence in an early and crushing victory and with a feeling of deep 
hatred and boundless contempt for their adversaries and for 
everything which was not German : the " Short and Joyous 
War," in their opinion, would be the most profitable form of 
business, the surest and quickest short cut to power, to unprece- 
dented prosperity and to fabulous wealth. I know that a 
few weeks before August, 1914, some prominent Germans said : 
" The degenerate French we despise ; the Tsar's Asiatic hordes 
we hate ; and the unspeakable British we both hate and despise " 
— a sentence which was soon afterwards endorsed in the famous 
words about the " contemptible little British Army " and the 
" Hymn of Hate." The Germans also added that they did not 
much care what was done by the " mandolin players " of Italy, 
who were only fit to give concerts to the victorious Teutonic 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

Army. It was in that frame of mind that Germany declared 
war upon Russia and France, and thereby in botli eoimtries 
united all national forces ; then by invading 15elgium and 
threatenincT England's honour and most vital interests, she 
threw the giant resources of the British Empire into the scale 
against her. 

The Germans failed. They failed to reach Paris, Dunkirk, 
Calais, Petrograd, and Cairo. The submarines have not forced 
and the Ze})})elins have not terrorised England into submission. 
True, German diplomacy succeeded in seeming the help of Turkey 
and Bulgaria ; but it failed to prevent Italy and Roumania from 
joining us. The " degenerate French " drove them back at the 
Marnc and repelled victoriously every attack at Verdim. The 
" Asiatic hordes " of Russia held up and often beat the best 
Teutonic legions. The " mandolin players " of Italy gave the 
Austrian or Hungarian forces a concert to which Franz Joseph's 
soldiers would certainly have preferred the valses of Vienna and 
the Czardas of Budapest ; and last but not least, the " unspeak- 
able English " managed, thanks to Lord Kitchener, to swell the 
'* contemptible little Army " into a huge force, capable of deliver- 
ing sledge-hammer blows and firing tempests of heavy shells : 
the German has learnt at his cost that the new armies of Greater 
Britain know now not only how to die — as Englishmen have 
always done — but also how to kill. We may therefore hope 
that the failure of Germany (in spite of preparations, kultur, 
spying, and every kind of frightfulness) will incline posterity to 
be indulgent to the shortcomings of the Allies' leaders, of whom 
Kitchener was perhaps the strongest soldier-statesman — one of 
those British Empire builders of whom the greatest representa- 
tives during the Napoleonic era were the two Wellesleys. 



Nevertheless, in spite of these strong qualities — and perhaps 
as a consequence of them — Kitchener had a human side w^hich 
is not generally known. He possessed a deep sense of humour, 
and, like a true compatriot of Shakespeare, very soon detected 
those ridiculous and grotesque incidents which are nearly always 
found in all great human dramas. I know many facts which 
confirm this, and I can also add that I have seen few men of 
Kitchener's age laugh so heartily and with such boyish gaiety 



LORD KITCHENER 

as did the late Secretary for War when he saw or heard things 
which he thought funny, and in my mind really were. 

I have witnessed many proofs of Kitchener's sincere and 
deep feelings for his Allies and comrades in arms : I shall quote 
only a single instance. One morning in the winter of 1914- 
1915 I was suddenly called to Lord. Kitchener's room in the War 
Office, where I learnt alarming facts which can now be disclosed, 
as there is no longer the slightest chance of their recurrence. 
Through the failure of certain things upon which the French 
authorities had during some time built great hopes, the French 
Army was seriously in danger of running short of certain materials 
and finished products which were absolutely necessary to beat 
back any new German onslaught ; and our Commander-in-Chief 
himself had sent to the Secretary of State for War a distinguished 
British Colonel (now a General) in order to explain his pressing 
need and his urgent request that England should help us out 
of their most dangerous difficulties. The French Staff asked 
that an answer should be given in a few hours : Kitchener 
practically put everything aside, and I passed nearly the 
whole day with him and with the British of!icials whose duty 
it was to provide the War Office with the things that we were 
asking for. 

It was evident since the beginning of our inquiries that 
Lord Kitchener was unfortunately not in a position to meet 
all the requirements of General Joffre. But, in order that he 
might do everything he could, he studied the question on all 
sides and examined every kind of possible combination and 
arrangement. At the end of the afternoon of that very same 
day he was able to make up his mind as to what he could and 
could not do. Then took place a scene which I can never 
forget. 

The day is falling and the large room is in semi-darkness. 
The Secretary of State for War dismisses everybody except the 
British Colonel of whom I have already spoken and myself; 
he has put on his large spectacles and is sitting down before his 
desk, where all the requisite papers lie in front of him ; the 
British officer and myself stand motionless. In the deep silence 
one can only hear the faint sound produced by the papers 
which Kitchener's hands turn over. Then' he orders me to 
sit down at the right-hand corner of his desk and carefully 
note what he has decided to do for the French : I obey. A 



TITK LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

long pause and a deep silence ^vhieh nothing disturbs : the 
Seerctarv of State for War lias ceased turning over his papers. 

Kitchener then slowly dictates the (alas, too short !) list 
of the things he can give Joffre. Another pause and another 
deep silence. 

Kitchener again tells me to write : I note the extraordinary 
and unprecedented facilities and powers with which he entrusts 
nie in order to render every possible help to the army of my 
people defending their native soil. Kitchener takes off his 
spectacles. A third jxausc and deep silence. 

The Secretary of State for War leans back in his chair 
and remains motionless as if buried in his thoughts. Then 
suddenly in a deep and half-strangled voice, as if he were suffering 
agonies of pain, he slowly addresses the British officer with 
these following words and short sentences which still ring in 
my ears and between which were great silences, as if he were 
gasping for breath : " Tell Joffre . . . tell my friend Joffre . . . 
that I am very sorry ... so very sorry that I can do no more." 

As I have finished writing down what he dictated I turn 
round and gaze at him ; and to my intense astonishment I see 
that Field-Marshal Earl Kitchener actually has tears in his 
eyes, because he is " so very sorry that he can do no more." 

He catches my look and, as if he was ashamed of himself 
and of what he seems to consider a weakness, he quickly puts 
back his spectacles. 

From that moment my feelings towards him greatly changed : 
up to that time I had already admired his fine intellectual and 
moral qualities ; but from that instant I also felt for him a 
deep affection, which, with a kind of instinct, Kitchener at once 
discovered and trusted, though I never said a word about it. 
And after that evening we shook hands when we parted in a 
different way from any we had done before. 



On that fatal Monday, June 5th, 1016, the unexpected 
happens and strikes us like a thunderbolt. For a few hours — 
a couple of days, perhaps — we cannot make up our mind ; we 
hope against hope. But we must submit to the Almighty's 
unfathomable decrees : Kitchener is no more. 

We are so stunned that we feel at first incapable of thought 
and of action ; we deem it impossible to carry through the yet 



LORD KITCHENER 

unfinished task wliich our sorrow and the loss of our chief seem 
to render too hard and too heavy. Then we remember our 
leader's orders to fulfil our duty ; wc obey, and once more we 
resume our w^ork with downcast eyes and broken hearts, but with 
the iron will — his will — and the stern determination — his 
determination — to fight on to an ultimate triumph and to an 
avenging victory. 

On Tuesday, June 13th, 1916, at noon, takes place at St. 
Paul's the Memorial Service of the late Field-Marshal Earl 
Kitchener of Khartoum. In the crowded cathedral gather all 
those for whom Kitchener worked, fought, and died : their 
Majesties ; the Ambassadors and representatives of the Allied 
countries ; the Ministers ; the Dignitaries of the Christian Creed 
to which the Field-Marshal belonged ; sailors, soldiers, nobles, 
and friends. From my place just behind the members of the 
Cabinet I can look round the whole large assembly and see how 
moved and impressed it is. The Memorial Service begins : 
prayers and hymns alternate. Through half-closed lips the 
words of mercy are whispered in a low tone and flow from the 
deepest and most secret recesses of the soul — as between half- 
closed rocks pure and crystalline water flows with a low murmur 
from the deepest and most secret recesses of the earth. Hymns 
spring forth from the organ and from hundreds of voices. They 
sing the faitli of mortal humanity not to die with death ; they 
shake from our mind the fear of the tomb and raise our thoughts 
into a world of luminous hope — as in some bright morning of 
my native land, the larks, shaking the dew off tlieir feathers 
joyously sing the end of the fear of night, and, opening their 
quivering wings, spring fortli into the luminous sky of France. 
I forget where I am. INIy mind, as if carried away upon 
the wings of poetry and music, flies away, very far away, 
from St. Paul's to the sea where the Hampshire sank, and over 
the boundaries of reality into the mysterious regions of dreams 
and of those sub-conscious ideas whence tiiith often seems to 
flash into us by a process unknown yet always quicker, and 
often safer, than that followed by reason. 

I can see the Field-Marshal : between the seaweed-covered 
and slowly rusting decks and sides of the British cruiser. Lord 
KitelKiKT lies in slntc. a knight of old clad in his battle-armour. 
Over his great Shadow, like a guard of honour, watch the Spirits 
of the Deep ; and the huge waves roaring along the rugged 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

northern coast sing a requiem deeper than that whicli rolh 
beneath tlie dome of St, Paul's. 

I can hear tlie judgment of history : Kitchener was a true 
friend, a great heart, and the highest type of those British 
gentlemen who behaved so well during the war. Kitchenei 
was one of those soldier-statesmen who built up the British 
Empire ; and as long as the British Empire can, in the dark hour^ 
of mortal peril, put its destinies into the hands of such men, it 
will stand. 

And at last are disclosed to me the meaning and reason o: 
Kitchener's death. 

I remember that in the days of their splendour the Dogcj 
committed to the waves of the Adriatic a wedding-ring of pun 
gold — a symbol that the City of the Lagoons was wed to thai 
sea which is everything to it : a shield ; an open road to wealth 
a source of strength ; the field of victory ; the essence of life. 

I then understand that the mysterious Powers which goverr 
the destinies of nations had decreed, in obeyance to the law o] 
redemption by which the greater the cause the greater the 
sacrifices and the victims, that the tragedy of June 5th, 1916 
must occur. In order that Britain should survive the crisis an( 
still remain the " World-wide Venice with the sea for street,'"' 
she had been compelled to commit to the ocean waves a wedding 
present more precious than any golden ring : the life of th( 
noblest of her sons, Field-Marshal Earl Kitchener of Khartoum. 

Chasseloup Laubat. 



♦ Expansion of England, by Sir J. R. Seeley. 




LORD KITCHENER AS COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF IN INDIA 



PHOTOGRAPH BY BOURNE A SHEPHERD. 
Reproducer! by Dermleslon of the London Elrctrotync Anency. 




LOIIO KITCIIKNER IN IMK IIIM.n IN SOriM AMtKA Sll(lllll,\ UI.TOHK rKACI'. WAS DKCI.AUl.I) 

Reproduced from a drawing by II. \V. KoKKKnKK, by courtesy of ''The llluslralcd London News" 







TlIK " ORATAVA," WITH LORD KITCIIKNKK ON BOARD, ARRIVING AT SOUTHAMPTON 

Drawing by C. DixON, reproduced by courtesy of ''The Graphic'' 




LORD KITCIir.M.R INSI'KCTING Tllli GUARD OF HONOUR AT SOUTHAMPTON ON HIS RETURN FROM SOUTH AFRICA 

By courtesy of N ewsfafer Illustrations, Ltd. 




I.I \li;\I. I l!l N( II \Nii l.oi;;) KIICIMCMIR I.IwVVIM. I'M; I.ONDOV ON I III lit HI. I I UN IIIOM sol 111 AI-UICA 

By courtesy of Newsfafer Illustrations, Ltd. E 2 




SNAPSHOT OF l.OHl) KUCHEKER taken at SOUTHAMPTON ON HIS RETURN FROM SOUTH AFRICA 

By courtesy of Cribb, Southsea 




THE PIlINCi: or WALES (NOW K.N.; .;r...lM.i:) MKETINO I.OnD^KITCIIENKR AT PADDINGTON ON HIS 

KKTLHN rnOM SOUTH AFKICA 

Drawine by IlATHf:REi.i., reproduced by courtesy of " The Graf hie 



Jn.v i). 1902.] PUNCH. Oil TIM-: I.ONhON ( ' 1 1 A IM \ A i: I . 




HAIL, kitchener: victor and PEACEMAKER! 



Uevroduced by coifttesy cf tht- Vriwrittom of "Punch' 




I.OKIJ KITCIIENKKS AHlilVAl, Al PADDINUTON ON HIS KKTURX FROM SOUTH AlHU A, .11 lA PJlll 1 !K)2 

By courtesy of the Sport and General Press Agency, Ltd. 







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I.ORI) Kn(lli;M;lt A I im. i oid . . \ i m ,\ rn k i ^-k in m kin(; kdumiii \ii. \i<.i--i Mm. l!l(l'. 
Z^.V courlrsy of the Spi'rl utid iicneral I'ress Agency, Ltd. 




LOKij kitciii:m:i{ isKi'i.-iiNf; lo tmi; toast of his iii'.ai.tii at a hanoikt at si'. ja.mks's palace. 

THE PIUNCE OF WALES (NOW KINO GEOKOE) AND THE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE ARE ON IIIS LEFT. 
OPPOSITE ARE LORD R0IJI:RTS, THE DUKE OF CONNAUGIIT AND THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE 

Drawing by AI-I.an Stewakt, re-produced by courtesy of " The Illustrated Loyidon News'''' 



July 16, 1902] PUNCH, OE THE LONDON CHARIVAEI. 



21 




^Tofit-Higt-.^ 



EASTWARD HO! 
Dritnnnia {to Indid), " VVk can ii.i. stauk him ; ):i t voi' skk \vk (iiVK vor ok oru mkst 



Reproduced by coiirlusu of the ProprU:tora of "Punch' 




LOUD KITCIIKNKR WITH TIIK KING IN INDIA IN 1905 
Drawing reproduced by courtesy of "' The Sfhere " 




1.1)11.) Ki 1 ( 1II..M.I; 1.1 \\i\(, >i\ii,A I.N 1909 
Drawing re-produced by courtesy of " The Sfhere " 




ON I,i:.\\'IN(. ^1M1..\ l.OItl) KITClllCNKIt I'.Ml) A VISIT 

TO TOKYO, \\ui;ki; he was \vi:lcomi;o in tiiic 

ANXIENT JAPANKSE MANNER 

Drawing reproduced by courtesy of " The Sfhere " 




'^- 



loKD MM J.I Ni II AT A I.ATKIt DATE SIIIIIOINIIEI) HV .1 A f A M >l . ( ) I I 1( I i; 

By courtesy of Newspaper Illustrations, Ltd. 




a 









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o 




LORD KITCHENKR INSPECTS THE RANK AND 1 ILE AT A CORONATION RALLY OF BOY SCOUTS AT LEICESTER, 

APRIL, 1911 

By courtesy of the Sfort and General Press Agency, Ltd. 




LOUD KITCHENER COMMANDING THE TROOPS AT THE CORONATION PROCESSION OF KING GEORGE V, JUNE 

22Nn, 1911 

By courtesy of the Sfort and General Press Agency, Ltd. 




LORD KITCHENER AT A RACE MEETING AT I.KOPARDHTOWN, IRELANO, ON JULY IOTH, 1911 

By courtesy of the Sport and General Press Agency, Ltd. 




I.<;lM> KIK IIKM.U (jlilAA 1 



,1 ^\ (,| I II I,:;- \| nil, IIMi; Ol llli: < OHONATION OK KINO GEOUGK V 

By courtesy of the Central News, Ltd. 




LORD KITCIIKM:!! K.MHARKING for EGYPT IN 1911 

By courtesy of N ewspafer Ilhistrations , Lid. 




i.()i«it KiK iri:M:R wirii iiii; kinc; inm'i:< i isr; riii: (;i aiid oi' iionoi r Airi.R ihsiimu akkinc in i;<;>rr. Mill 

By courtesy of the Central News, Ltd. 




LORD KITCHENER ENTERING TIIE KlI i;iJI VJ:".S COM ii on his ARRIVAL IN EGYPT, 1911 

By courtesy of the Central News, Ltd. 



LORD KITCHENER AND LABOUR 

BY 

THE RIGHT HON. ARTHUR HENDERSON, 

M.P. 

Lord Kitchener, perhaps more than any other man at the 
outbreak of war, was the personification of the spirit that 
dominated the British Empire, moved to stern and determined 
resolve in a just and noble cause. Though a professional soldier 
influenced by a strong sense of discipline, he won for himself a 
unique place in the heart and confidence of the freest democracy 
in the world. Most of the " common folk " knew little of his 
achievements on the field of battle or his great administrative 
and organising gifts. The people realised that the country 
they loved so dearly was up against the most highly organised 
mihtary Power, and in their fight for liberty, freedom, and 
national right they wanted a military leader whom they could 
not only respect but love and trust as their great organiser of 
the victory upon which they had set their minds. Lord Kjtchener 
possessed those personal qualities which enabled him from the 
outset to obtain the respect and confidence of the workers ; in 
fact at a bound he leapt into their affections. Nor was this 
surprising. A typical soldier of the best school, manly, upright 
and straightforward, with no desire for self-aggrandisement, and 
entirely free from all spirit of intrigue, he not only won the 
affections of the people, he retained them and stood nearer to 
them at his death than ever before. 

It was my good fortune to see a great deal of him as Secretary 
uf State for War, and to make certain arrangements affecting the 




LORD KITCHENER ENTERING THE Klli;i>I\ 1. .-^ CO \( H ON HIS ARRIVAL IN EGYPT, 1911 

By courtesy of the Central News, Ltd. 



LORD KITCHENER AND LABOUR 

BY 

THE RIGHT HON. ARTHUR HENDERSON, 

M.P. 

Lord Kitchener, perhaps more than any other man at the 
outbreak of war, was the personification of the spirit that 
dominated the British Empire, moved to stern and determined 
resolve in a just and noble cause. Though a professional soldier 
influenced by a strong sense of discipline, he won for himself a 
unique place in the heart and confidence of the freest democracy 
in the world. Most of the " common folk " knew little of his 
achievements on the field of battle or his great administrative 
and organising gifts. The people realised that the country 
they loved so dearly was up against the most highly organised 
military Power, and in their fight for liberty, freedom, and 
national right they wanted a military leader whom they could 
not only respect but love and trust as their great organiser of 
the victory upon which they had set their minds. Lord Kitchener 
possessed those personal qualities which enabled him from the 
outset to obtain the respect and confidence of the workers ; in 
fact at a bound he leapt into their affections. Nor was this 
surprising. A typical soldier of the best school, manly, upright 
and straightforward, with no desire for self-aggrandisement, and 
entirely free from all spirit of intrigue, he not only won the 
affections of the people, he retained them and stood nearer to 
them at his death than ever before. 

It was my good fortune to see a great deal of him as Secretary 
of State for War, and to make certain arrangements affecting the 



VUK LOIU) KlTCllKNER MEMORIAL HOOK 

voiktis. 'riu)uj»h, as was to be expected, tlie interests of the 
Army were ever prominent, lie was always ready to admit that 
the Civil side could not be ignored. One of my earliest experiences 
was in connection with the temporary release of men from the 
Colours to meet an emergency of a national character. He said, 
" 1 cannot, recognising as I must the military situation, free the 
men absolutelj^ from military service, but I will stipulate that 
in all cases we recognise the trade union rate, and should anyone 
be employed away from home, I will see that the home income 
is not prejudiced in any way, as we shall continue the separation 
allowance." This was not due to any desire to play for popu- 
larity, he was too big a man for that ; he was only influenced by 
a deep sense of what was right. 

Two other incidents in his relations with Labour are particu- 
larly impressed on my mind. Towards the end of September 
1915, when perhaps our prospects in the field seemed darker 
than they had ever been before. Lord Kitchener and the Prime 
Minister readily accepted an invitation to meet and put before 
the principal Trade Unionists of the country a candid statement 
of the position as it aflected our demand for men. Lord Kitchener 
made his statement, which, like all his utterances, was terse, 
somewhat formal, and totally devoid of any kind of oratorical 
appeal. It was received with respect, but respect was soon 
absorbed in a far more cordial and human feeling, when in the 
give-and-take of conversation and discussion which followed 
the audience became aware of the good humour, homely sense 
and frank comradeship which underlay the more formidable 
qualities oi" the great soldier. In half an hour, I believe there 
was not a single man among those to whom he was speaking 
who had not conceived for him a warm personal affection, 
which afterwards made the news of his death come home to 
each one of them with a sense of personal loss and pain. He 
was no less delighted with the warmth and goodwill with which 



LORD KITCHENER AND LABOUR 

he was received. At a later date he met them again, and his 
utterance on this occasion, delivered with the measured gravity 
of a statesman and the frank sincerity of a friend, did more, in 
my judgment, than the words of any other man could have done 
to reconcile Labour to the new and unprecedented burden 
which the nation was calling upon its children to bear 

But in all my negotiations with him on behalf of Labour I 
found him swayed by only one motive — namely, the highest in- 
terests of his country engaged in a life or death struggle. A true 
soldier, he recognised that no section of the nation contributed 
more in human wealth than did the working classes. I found him 
free from all prejudice and frankly and sincerely sympathetic in 
his attitude towards Labour. He had a profound faith in the 
patriotism of the whole nation, and having foreseen that the 
war would last three years, he never doubted that his countrymen 
would respond to the call for men. To him, more than to any 
other soldier, is credit due for the magnificent response volun- 
tarily made by over four milhons of men. Now in these days 
of magnificent successes in the field, when the new Armies he 
created, fashioned and equipped, are reaping the first-fruits of 
victory, the thanks and gratitude of a whole people should go 
up to the man whose organising genius, foresight and silent 
energy have contributed in so immeasurable a degree towards 
the complete mobilisation and development of the human 
resources of our island nation, whereby final and complete victory 

will be achieved. 

Arthur Henderson. 



ADVERTISING FOR AN ARMY 

BY 

SIR HEDLEY F. LE BAS 

More years ago than I care to remember, I was a soldier 
in the old professional Army. Later, I founded a business 
which owed its development largely to newspaper advertising. 
Many times, as I watched the wonderful results achieved by 
publicity in the case of my own private enterprises, I used to 
dream of an ever-widening application of the advertising prin- 
ciple. I began to see it as a force which might develop an 
idea, a school of thought, a political personality or a national 
policv, as easily as it expanded the commercial interests of 
priva'te enterprises like my own and, later, banks and insurance 
companies and thinly populated colonies. 

But never in my wildest moments did I visualise the possi- 
bility of the British Empire rallying great armies to the flag 
in the hour of bitter need, by the help of newspaper advertising, 
and less did I think that I, an old soldier, as the nominal head 
of the Government's advertising programme, would become, in a 
strictly technical sense, a sort of super recruiting sergeant. It 
may not be very wonderful to people outside of Fleet Street, 
but I never look back on the strange situation created by the 
war, the need for a call upon men on an unexampled scale, and 
the method of making that call, without marvelling. 

Of course, many people think that Advertising for an 
Army was in itself a new note — one of the strange fruits pro- 
duced by the unanticipated conditions set up by the outbreak 
of war. But that is not quite true. It is often said there is 
nothing new under the sun, and certainly " advertising for an 
army " was not a new idea. Strange as it may sound, here in 
England we were advertising for an army one hundred years 
ago. I have before me an old proclamation addressed " To the 
warriors of INIanchester." The advertisement, a quaint specimen 
of early publicity, was inspired by much the same conditions 



ADVERTISING FOR AN ARMY 

that set England advertising for an army in 1914. The an- 
nouncement refers to " these times of common danger " and to 
the "ruthless plunderer of nations." A hundred years ago 
Europe was passing through the ordeal of battle with which we, 
in 1916, have grown sadly too familiar, and England was resisting 
a " ruthless plunderer of nations "—not the Wilhelm who will 
always be associated with many bitter memories, but a much 
worthier foe — the great Napoleon. 

Doubtless, the old advertisement, quaintly worded as it is, 
produced the desired end, which was to raise an army for Gibraltar. 
One smiles at the quaintly moving appeal of this hundred year 
old advertisement. Soldiering is painted as the life of a prince. 
The potential recruit was told that " Spaniards come into the 
garrison and returning to their friends, cry, ' Who would be a 
Spanish prince that had the power to be an English soldier.' " 
And, so runs this old war advertisement, "Here you will be 
envied by the men. You will be courted and adored by the 
women. Would you make your Fortune with the Sex. Here 
are ladies of all countries to choose from— Love speaks for itself ; 
and they know that Britons excel in its attributes." As for 
Gibraltar as a base for soldiering, it is painted as an earthly 
paradise in a way that must have dazed the possible recruit. 
" A fine healthy climate, subject to no excess of heat or cold, 
plenty of provisions such as beef, mutton and potatoes, etc., 
abundantly cheap ; best port wine threepence per quart ; rum, 
gin, brandy, ditto, tenpcnce ; tobacco at the following rates per 
pound : high dried, fourteen pence ; short cut, thirteenpence- 
halfpenny ; shag and pigtail, one shilling." That advertise- 
ment makes me think of the old professional army, as it was, 
when I joined the colours. Manners, customs and outlook 
change. In the present great war, some of the announcements 
we issued in the early days of war carried an appeal diametrically 
opposite to the material attractions held out to recruits in the 
great Napoleonic period. Lord Kitchener, in a widespread appeal 
tactfully suggested to every soldier the need for moderation, 
both in personal conduct and habit. Lord Kitchener's stern 
conception of soldiering did not permit of a son of Mars being 
attracted by the low price of spirits in the country in which he 
was likely to operate, or his prospects with the fair sex as a 
soldier of fortune. 

Still, there it is. Advertising for an army was by no means 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

a new idta. But advertising as we know it to-day, in every 
phase, is a vastly different force from the kind of publicity 
put out by advertisers a hundred years ago. A hundred years 
ago advertising of all kinds was in the embryonic stage. Still, 
the first real application of modern advertising to the needs of 
a depleted army took place two years before the war began. 
I remember in those days, when everything seemed so peaceful 
and secure, a conversation I had with Colonel (now General) 
Seely. Colonel Seely told me he was to make his annual state- 
ment in the House of Commons the next day, and was much 
concerned by the fact that the army of that particular year 
was some 7,000 men short. It seems a modest figure, but one 
must remember that previous to the war our standing army at 
home and abroad was no more than 300,000. Every year, on 
an average, 35,000 men passed into the reserve or were discharged, 
and that was the figure needed to keep recruiting up to the 
average. Each year came the same difficulty — the 35,000 units 
needed did not fill up the depleted regiments. Some years we 
were four, five, or six thousand short. In Colonel Seely's year, 
1913, the recruiting showed a shortage of 7,000 men — to fill 
35,000 places there were only 28,000 soldiers. 

Colonel Seely happened to turn to me. " Now, you are an 
old soldier," he said. " Supposing you had to find 35,000 
men for the Army, how would you set to work ? " My business 
experience had made me a man with one fixed idea — that publi- 
city will find or create anything. Instantly I answered according 
to my faith : " I should advertise for them." Colonel Seely, to 
my surprise, took my answer seriously. The result was I drew up 
a scheme and explained it to him at the War Office. Later, in 
the same matter, I attended a meeting of the Army Council, at 
which Sir .Tohn (now Lord) French was present. As a result of 
that meeting, the first modern appeal for recruits by advertising 
was sent out. It was not an extensive advertising campaign. 
As far as I recollect the cost of the whole scheme was between 
£3,000 and £4,000, but limited as it was the appeal was a success, 
for within a short period the shortage of 7,000 was practically 
made up. As an enthusiastic advertiser, I was naturally pleased 
to see that publicity automatically did for the larger purposes 
of the Government all I have seen it do in furthering the more 
restricted aims of the business man. The War Office, I was 
glad to see. was satisfied for, in the ill-fated year of 1914, 



ADVERTISING FOR AN ARMY 

an even more extensive campaign for recruits was to have 
started in September. In August, however, the war broke 
out and the problem of recruiting assumed an entirely dif- 
ferent aspect. We no longer were face to face with the 
necessity of finding a few thousand men to bring the estabhshed 
army to its average strength. The problem before the Govern- 
ment, not as a shy experiment but as a dire necessity, was to 
raise an entire army on a scale that made the country gasp 
when first Lord Kitchener outlined it. 

Normally, in 1914, we were planning to raise 35,000 men 
by an advertised appeal. In August of that year, almost at a 
moment's notice, the needs of the Army became a matter of 
finding millions of men in a few months. It was a colossal task. 
Of course. Lord Kitchener did not ask for millions of men at once. 
First he asked for 100,000. That appeal was made in the first 
advertisement I issued, the now familiar announcement headed 
" Your King and Country need you." There was no doubt 
about the temper of the country. The response was immediate. 
Whereas in the days of peace the Army found a difficulty in 
raising 35,000 men in one year, in that first September of war 
35,000 men enhsted in one day. That was the biggest day's 
recruiting under the voluntary system that served us so well 
until recently. Day by day the advertisements went out. Day 
by day the recruits came in. By the time the voluntary 
system was abandoned — not because of its failure, but because 
its very success had exhausted the volume of men of the type 
who will volunteer — Lord Kitchener's appeal through public 
annoimcements had created a new army of millions of men. 

Lord Kitchener's untimely death was a great blow to me. 
He was always sympathetic to any proposal likely to quicken 
the flow of recruits. At first, I do not think he quite saw modern 
advertising as the business man sees it, and was a little suspicious 
about the popular appeals that departed so drastically from 
traditions he had respected all his life. Our " Five questions to 
men who have not enlisted " ; " Five questions to those who 
employ male servants," and " Five questions to the young 
women of London " — easily the three most successful of the many 
different advertisements issued — I think sometimes startled the 
great soldier. But he was quick enough when he faced the 
results to grasp the probabilities of newspaper advertising and 
to widen his vision, and he became more and more enthusiastic 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

the more certainly the pubhcity put out achieved its end. In 
sonic q\iarters Lord Kitchener was criticised for having attracted 
the anui/.ing How of recruits to the new forces by calHng them 
" Kiteliener's Army." I am only uttering the bare truth when 
I say that the last thought in Lord Kitchener's mind was the 
gloritieation of his own name. Indeed, I think I was in a great 
measure responsible for the new recruits ultimately becoming 
known as " Kitchener's Army." As a business man I know 
the value of a good name — the goodw^ill, if I may use the word, 
of a good name. 

It was so with Lord Kitchener's name. He was the only 
soldier with a great war name, won in the field, within the 
memory of the thousands of men the country wanted. Lord 
Kitchener was beloved by the public, and very justly so. The 
people trusted him. They turned instinctively to him for reassur- 
ance when the terrible crash came. I knew the solid advantages 
of that wonderful name and personality, with their power to 
move people and inspire them to patriotic effort. The right to 
use the name made the enormous task of finding a new army all 
the easier. We who managed the details of the publicity cam- 
paign had a name to conjure with — a goodwill already created. 
So in all the appeals put out. Lord Kitchener's name was our 
great asset and was never absent from them. " Lord Kitchener 
calls for more men," " Lord Kitchener wants you," " Lord 
Kitchener's appeal," were familiar phrases to everyone. And 
the men gloried in the name and hked the idea of personally 
responding to the distinguished soldier's appeal. They were 
" Kitchener men " and " proud of it too " as the song goes, 
and so in time, under the suggestion of advertising and without 
any ofiicial christening — by Lord Kitchener least of all — they 
became " Kitchener's Army." 

Lord Kitchener ! His name made the recruiting campaign 
possible and vindicated the voluntary systeni. The penalty of 
being a great man is that he must face criticism, just or unjust, 
and much of it from men who do not understand. It is no 
business of mine to place Lord Kitchener as a soldier. But this 
I do know% first and last and every hour in his long day, his heart 
was set on the creation of the new armies which are now winning 
the war. Nor was there any man when he hved more proud of 
the wonderful response made by the country to the appeals 
issued in his own name. 

Hedley F. Le Bas. 



G. 




R. 



Your King and 
Country need You 

A CALL TO ARMS 



An addition ol lOCJ.OOO men to His 

Majesty's Regular Army is immediately 

necessary in the present grave National 

Emergency. 

Lord Kitchener is confident that this appeal 
will be at once responded to by all those 
who have the safety of our Empire at heart. 

TERMS OF SERVICE. 

General Service for the period of the war 
only. Any men so enlisting will be dis- 
charged with all convenient speed as soon 
as the war is over. 

Age of enlistment between 19 and 30. 



HOW TO JOIN. 

Full information can be obtained al any 
Post Office or Labour Exchange in lh«' 
Kingdom <<T at any Military Barrack 



GOD SAVE THE KING. 



5 Questions 
to men who 
have not enhsted 



1. TF you are physically fit and 
1 between 19 and 38 years of 
age, are you really satisfied with 
what you are doing to-day ? 

2. Do you feel happy as you walk 
along the streets and see other 
men wearing the King's uniform 7 

3. What will you say in years to 
come when people ask you — 
"Where did you serve" in the 
great War? 

4 What will you answer when 
your children grow up, and say, 
" Father, why weren't you a 
soldier, too?" 

3. What would happen to the 
Empire if every man stayed at 
home like you ? 

Your King and Country Need You. 

ENLIST TO-DAY. 



At any l'*osl Olfice you can obtain tfie 
address ol the nearest [Recruiting Office. 

God Save the King. 



YOUNC WOMEN 

LONDON 



Is your ''Best Boy*' wearing 
Khaki? If not don't YOU 
THINK he should be? 

If he does not think that you 
and your country are worth 
fighting for— do you think he 
is WORTHY of you? 

Don't pity the girl who is 
alone— her young man is 
probably a soldier— fighting 
for her and her country— 
and for YOU. 

U yonr young man neglects his duly lo liis 
King and Country, the time may come when 
he will NEGLECT YOU. 

Thhik It over— then ask hhn lo 

JOIN THE ARMY TO-DilY 



»>«»««« »r »"^ ""■ * ' 



o2 



5 Questions 
to those who 
employ male servants 



1. If AVE you a Butler, Groom, 
1 X Chauffeur, Gardener, or 
Gamekeeper serving you who, 
at this moment should be serving 
your King and Country ? 

2. Have you a man serving at 
your table who should be serving 
a gun ? 

3. Have you a man digging your 
garden who should be digging 
trenches 7 

4. Have you a man driving your 
car who should be driving a 
transport wagon ? 

5. Have you a man preserving 
your game who should be helpmg 
to preserve your Country ? 

A great responsibility rests on you. 
Will you sacrifice your personal con- 
venience for your Country's need ? 

Ask your men to enlist TO-DAY. 

The address of the nearest Recruiting 
Office can be obtained at any Post Office. 

God Save the King. 



^ 



TO 

THE MEN 

OF 

ENGLAND 

\/OUR Country knows 
^ that it is no light sacrifice 
that she demands of you. 

You are not blamed for letting 
others, who felt the call more 
keenly, get in ahead of you. 
But now it is your turn to 
play the man; if you do so^ 
we will not think the less of 
you because you could not 
go sooner. 

Remember this, if ]j[ou don't 
go willingly to-day, you and 
your children, and your chil- 
dren's children, may have to 
go unwillmgly to wars even 
more terrible than this one. 

YOUR COUNTRY A/ZIM/ 

WANTS YOU lyyjyy 

ENLIST TO-DAY. 
God Save the King. 



A Call 

from 

the Trenches. 

(Extract from a letter from the Trenches.) 

"T SAW a recruiting ad- 
* vertisement in a paper the 
other day. I wonder if the 
men are responding properly 
— they would if they could 
see what the Germans have 
done in Belgium. And, 
after all, it's not so bad out 
here — cold sometimes, and 
the waiting gets on our 
nerves a bit, but we are 
happy and as fit as fiddles. 

I wonder if has 

joined, he certainly ought to." 



Does " 
If so 



— " refer to you ? 



ENLIST TO-DAY. 
God Save the King. 



What is your 
answer to 
Lord Kitchener's • 
call? 

-300,000 men wanted now/' 



WAR OFFICE 

WHITEHALL 

S.W 

I have said that I vrould let 
ihe country know when more men 
were wanted for the war. The 
Ime ha* wcome and I now call 
ior 300.000 reauiu to form new 
armies. 

Tlioie who are engaged on the 
production of war raalerial of any 
kind ihould not leave their work. 
It u to men who are not pcr- 
fcrtuing tKi« duty that 1 appeal. 

KITCHENER. 



THERE is only one reply 
that Ireland expects from every 
man who is between 1 9 and 40 years 

of age and physically fit, that 

is to go to the nearest Recruitmg 
Office and 

Join an Irish Regiment 
TO-DAY. 



Is your 
conscience 
clear ? 



Ask your conscience why you are 
staying comfortably at home instead 
of doing your share for your King 
and Country. 

1 . Are you too old ? 

The only man v/ho it too old is the mut 
vfho is over 38. 

2. Are you physically (it ? 

TTie only man who can say honestly thai he 
is not physically £t is the man who hat beta 
told »o by a Medical Officer. 

3. Do you suggest you cannot 

leave your business ? 

In this great crisis the only man who caiuiot 
leave his business is the man who is himself 
actually doing work for the GoTernmeoL 

If your conscience is not clear on 
^hese three points your duty is plain. 

ENLIST TO-DAY 



God Save the King 




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1915 

JANUARY 




The GREAT 
RESOLUTION 

FOR THE NEW YEAR 



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At any Post Office you can 
obtain the address of the 
Nearest Recruiting Office. 

God Save the King 



G. 




R. 



An Appeal to all 
Ex-N.CO/s. 



LORD KITCHENER appeals to 
«jEx-Non-Commissioned Officers 
of any branch of His Majesty's 
forces to assist him now by re- 
enlisting at once for the duration 
of the War. 

PARTICULARS. 

Chiefly required to act as drill 
instructors. Promotion to non- 
commissioned rank immediately after 
enlistment. Age no obstacle so long 
as competent. No liability for service 
abroad if over 45. Pensioners may 
draw their pensions m addition to 
pay of rank at Army rates. 

Apply for information or enlistment 
at any recruiting office or ask O.C. 
depot to re-enlist you in your old 
Corps. 



God Save the King. 



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sister proud < 
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" Be sure that h 
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LOF 


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THE MAN 
BE PITIED 




Now that the eyes ol the Nation 
are upon the men who honour 
themselves by ser\'in? their King 


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thinks of the men who have 
answered the call. He envies them 
the great opp<irtunity which he has 
missed. They were of a soldier's 
age ; they were physically fit : and 


c 

> 


After the War is over thev will 
be able to hold up their heads. 
Their womenfolk and their children 
will be proud of them. 


But he! He who had no part in 
this great honour. No crowds will 
cheer him through the streets. He 
will hear the praise of otlier men's 
courage and patriotism ; but he will 
have no share in it His lot is hard. 
He is to be pitied. 

Are you going to be pitied or ■ 
praised. 

you are physicaDy fit-don't be pitied. 


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Your 

King and Country 

need you. 



Wl LL you answer your Country's 
Call ? Each day is fraught 
with the gravest possibilities, 
and at this veiy moment the Empire is 
on the brink of the greatest War in the 
history of the world. 

In this crisis your Country calls all her 
young unmarried men to rally round 
the Flag and enlist in the ranks of 
her Army 

If every patriotic young man ansivers 
her call, England and her Empfftre will 
emerge stronger and more united than 
ever 

li you are unmarried and between 18 
and 30 years old, will you answer your 
Country's Call, and go to the nearest 
Recruiter— whose address you can get 
at any Post Office, and 

Join the Army To-day. 



G. 




R. 



To all Ex-N.CO/s 



EX- NoN - Commissioned 
Officers of any branch of 
His Majesty's Forces are required 
for the duration of the War, their 
assistance in training the new Army 
being urgently needed. 

PARTICULARS. 

Promotion to non - commissioned 
rank immediately after enlistment. 
Age no obstacle so long as com- 
petent. No liability for service 
abroad if over 45, or in special 
cases 40. Pensioners may draw 
their pensions in addition to pay 
of rank at Army rates. 

Apply for information or enlistment 
at any recruiting office, or ask O.C. 
Depot to re-enlist you in your old 
Corps. 



God Save the King. 




s ^ 




JWO 1 ..i I.AIU.^ or LOKIJ KlTCllKNKU AT TJIK Ol'KM.NG OK THK ASSOUAN DAM, IJECEMm^ll, 10] 

By courtesy of Sfort and General Press Agency, Ltd. 







<v|r 




n 2 





LOKU KITCllKNKK AS A GliNIiUAL IN UNOllIiSS 
UNIKORM 

By courtesy of Bassano, Lid. 



i.oRU Knriii:M;i< watching army sports at 

Tin; KGYPTIAN ARMY TOLUNAMKNT AT UELIOPOLIS 

By courtesy of the Al fieri Future Service 




LORD KITCHENER AT THE OPENING OF THE NEW QUAY, CAIUO, MAY, lOlii 

By courtesy of the Central News, Ltd. 




LORD KITCIIENIin IN THE FUI.I. DRESS UNIIOHM OV A 
FIELD-MARSHAL 

By courtesy of liasiauo, Ltd 




Till". MAir-i:r) i ist sthikks at last 
Drawing by D.win Wilson, reproduced by courtesy of ''The Grafhic"" 



J /t^^^u^ d.^-^ ^^^^^- ^ '^i— ^ ^^- 
At- ^^,^^ut..ucjeci-^ Aot^^o-t^ (J'T^je^c^ Pt^^^rxA. 










LORD kitchener's APPEAL TO THE NATION I OK :{00,0()0 MORE MEN 




LORD KITCIIKNER REVIKWING PART OF THE NEW ARMY AT WOKING, SEPTEMBER 2CTn, 1914 

By courtesy of the Sport and General Press Agency, Ltd. 




loKi) i\Itciii;m;u wnir iiii; kin(; and yi i:i;n \r \i 
By courtesy of the Al fieri Picture Service 




LOUD KITCHENER AT^I.I VKHPOOr,, WATCHING THE MARCH PAST OF 11,000 TROOl'S I ROM IHE 

STEPS' OF ST: GEOROE'S HAIX 

By courtesy of the Tofical Press Agency 





LORD KITCIIKNKK AT THE WAU OFI U K IN IMS 
CUSTOMARY DARK HIAF, UNII-OHM 

By courtesy of the London Xr-i's Agency 



LOHU KITCIIl-.NKK IN CIVILIAN DRESS 

By courtesy of the Central News. Ltd. 




INSriXTION BY LOUD KITCHENER OF RUSSIAN OFFICERS AND 
MEN ENGAGEIJ ON MUNITIONS WORK IN ENGLAND 

By courtesy of the Central News, Ltd. 




J.OIlli KITClIICNKIl AND LOKU UOUKKTS AT TUli WAIl OKl'ICK 

Drawing refroduced by courtesy of " The Illustrated London News 





#^^ i -^^ ^ 




'-v. 



Luuu kih.iu:m:k with tiu; kin<; at an insi-kction oi lA^Al)lA^ 
By courtesy of the Topical Press Agency 



ii.i.^ii( K -. ri.Ai: 




LORD KITCHENER CnATTING WITH SIB DANIl.l. ..-' l.l . .,.,..1 .1 i 

CHELMSFORD ON AUGUST 6TH, 1915 

By courtesy of the Central Press Photos, Ltd. 



I IMIDI'- \ I. \IC 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECHES &f REVIEWS 
OF THE PROGRESS OF THE WAR 



LORD KITCHENER'S FIRST SPEECH AS 
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR WAR 
IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, AUGUST 25, 1914 



My Lords, as this is the first time that I have had the honour 
of addressing your Lordships.. I must ask for the indulgence of 
the House. In the first place, I desire to make a personal 
statement. Noble Lords on both sides of the House doubtless 
know that while associating myself in the fullest degree for the 
prosecution of the war with my colleagues in His Majesty's 
Government, my position on this Bench does not in any way 
imply that I belong to any political Party, for, as a soldier, I 
have no politics. Another point is that my occupation of the 
post of Secretary of State for War is a temporary one. The 
terms of my sei'\^ice are the same as those uncler which some of 
the finest portions of our manhood, now so willingly stepping 
forward to join the Colours, are engaging — that is to say, for 
the war, or, if it lasts longer than three years, then for three 
years. It has been asked why the latter limit has been fixed. 
It is because should this disastrous war be prolonged — and no 
one can foretell with any certainty its duration — then after 
three years' war there will be others fresh and fully prepared 
to take our places and see this matter through. 

The very serious conflict in which we are now engaged on 
the Continent has been none of our seeking. It will undoubtedly 
strain the resources of our Empire and entail considerable 
sacrifices on our people. These will be willingly borne for our 
honour and for the preservation of our position in the world, 
and they will be shared by our Dominions beyond the seas, 
now sending contingents and assistance of every kind to help 
the Mother Country in this struggle. If I am unaljle, owing to 
military consideration for the best interests of the Allied Armies 
in the field, to speak with much detail on the present situation 
of our Army on the Continent, I am sure your Lordships will 

I 2 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

pardon mc for the necessary restraint which is imposed upon 
me. The Expeditionary Force has taken the field on the French 
North- West frontier, and advanced to the nein;hbourhood of 
Mons in Ik'lgiuni. Our trooi)S have ah'cady been for thirty-six 
hours in contact with a superior force of German invaders. 
During that time they have maintained the traditions of British 
soklie?s, and have behaved with the utmost galhuitry. The 
movements which tlicy have been called upon to execute have 
been those which demand the greatest steadiness in the soldiers 
and skill in their commanders. Sir John French telegraphed 
to me at midnight as follows : — 

In spite of hard marching and fighting, the British Force is in the best of 
spirits, 

I replied : 

Congratulate troops on their splendid work. We are all proud of them. 

As your Lordships are aware, European fighting causes greater 
casualties than occur in the campaigns in which we are generally 
engaged in other parts of the world. The nation will, I am sure, 
be fully prepared to meet whatever losses and sacrifices we may 
have to make in this war. Sir John French, without having 
been able to verify the numbers, estimates the loss, since the 
commencement of active operations, at rather more than 2,000 
men hors de combat. 

As to the work of the last few weeks, I have to remark that 
when war was declared mobilisation took place without any 
hitch whatever, and our Expeditionary Force proved itself 
wholly cfTicient, well equipped, and immediately ready to take 
the field. The Press and the public have, in their respective 
spheres, lent invaluable aid to the Government in preserving the 
discreet silence which the exigencies of the situation obviously 
demanded, and I gladly take this opportunity of bearing testi- 
mony to the value of their co-operation. The hands of the 
military authorities were also strengthened by the readiness with 
which the civilian community faced and accepted the novel 
situation created by the issue of requisitions for horses, trans- 
port, supplies, and billets. The railway companies in the all- 
important matter of the transport facilities have more than 
justified the complete confidence reposed in them by the War 
Office, all grades of railway services having laboured with un- 



HOUSE OF LORDS, AUGUST 25, 1914 

tiring energy and patience. And it is well to repeat that the 
conveyance of our troops across the Channel was accomplished, 
thanks to the cordial co-operation of the Admiralty, with perfect 
smoothness and without any untoward incident whatever. 

We know how deeply the French people appreciate the value 
of the prompt assistance we have been able to afford them at the 
very outset of the war, and it is obvious that not only the moral 
but the material support which our troops are now rendering 
must prove to be a factor of high military significance in restrict- 
ing the sphere and determining the duration of hostilities. Had 
the conditions of strategy permitted, every one in this country 
would have rejoiced to see us ranged alongside the gallant 
Belgian Army in that superb struggle against desperate odds 
which has just been witnessed. But although this privilege was 
perforce denied to us, Belgium knows of our sympathy with her 
in her sufferings, of our indignation at the blows which have 
been inflicted upon her, and also of our resolution to make sure 
that in the end her sacrifices will not have been unavailing. 

While other countries engaged in this war have, under a 
system of compulsory service, brought their full resources of 
men into the field, we, under our national system, have not 
done so, and can therefore still point to a vast reserve drawn 
from the resources both of the Mother Country and of the British 
Dominions across the seas. The response which has already 
been made by the great Dominions abundantly proves that we 
did not look in vain to these sources of military strength, and 
while India, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand are all 
sending us powerful contingents, in this country the Territorials 
are replying with loyalty to the stern call of duty, which has come 
to them with such exceptional force. Over seventy battalions 
have, with fine patriotism, already volunteered for service abroad, 
and when trained and organised in the larger formations will be 
able to take their places in the line. The 100,000 recruits for 
which, in the first place, it has been tliouglit necessary to call 
have been already practically secured. This force will be trained 
and organised in divisions similar to those which are now serving 
on the Continent. Behind these we have our Reserves. The 
Special Reserve and the National Reserve have each their own 
part to play in the organisation of our national defence. 

The Empires with whom we are at war have called to the 
Colours almost their entire male population. The principle 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

which wo on our jiart shall observe is this — that while their 
niaxiimim force iiiuk r£focs a constant diminution, the reinforce- 
ments we prepare shall steadily and increasingly flow out until 
we have an Army in the field which, in numbers not less than in 
quaHty, will not be unworthy of the power and responsibilities 
of the Britisli Fjnpire. I cannot at this stage say what will be 
the limits of the forces required, or what measures may even- 
tually become necessary to supply and maintain them. The 
scale of the Field Army which we are now calling into being is 
large and may rise in the course of the next six or seven months 
to a total of thirty divisions continually maintained in the field. 
But if the war should be protracted, and if its fortunes should 
be varied or adverse, exertions and sacrifices beyond any which 
have been demanded will be required from the whole nation and 
Empire, and where they are required we are sure they will not 
be denied to the extreme needs of the State by Parliament or 
the people. 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON THE 

MILITARY SITUATION 
IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, SEPTEMBER 17, 1914 



Your Lordships will expect that some statement should be 
made by me on the general military situation before the session 
ends, and I will therefore endeavour as briefly as possible to sup- 
plement the remarks which I had the honour to address to your 
Lordships' House three weeks ago. I need not re-tell the story 
of the British Expeditionary Force in France which has been 
read and appreciated by us all in Sir John French's despatch. 
The quiet restraint of his account of their achievements only 
brings into relief the qualities which enabled our troops success- 
fully to carry out the most difficult of all military operations. 
There is, however, one aspect of this feat of arms upon which 
the despatch is naturally silent. I refer to the consummate 
skill and calm courage of the Commander-in-Chief himself in 
the conduct of the strategic withdrawal in the face of vastly 
superior forces. His Majesty's Government appreciate to the 
full the value of the service which Sir John French has rendered 
to this country and to the cause of the Allies, and I may perhaps 
be permitted here and now, on their behalf, to pay a tribute to 
his leadership as well as to the marked ability of the Generals 
under his command and the bravery and endurance of the officers 
and men of the Expeditionary Force. 

As your Lordships are aware, the tide has now turned, and 
for some days past we have received the gratifying intelligence 
of the forced retirement of the German Armies. The latest news 
from Sir John French docs not materially change tlie publislicd 
statement describing the military situation. In his telegram 
Sir John reports that the troops are all in good heart and are 
ready to move forward when the moment arrives. The gallant 
French Armies with which we are so proud to be co-operating 



Till: LOUD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

will receive every siq^port IVom our troops in their desire effec- 
tually to clear their country of the invading Ibe, and the un- 
tlaunted and vigilant activity of the Belgian Army in the North 
materially conduces to this end. I would also like to take this 
op]Hn-tunity of offering our cordial congratulations to Russia 
upon the conspicuous successes which have added fresh lustre 
to her arms. 

Although, therefore, we have good grounds for quiet confi- 
dence, it is only right that we should remind ourselves that 
the struggle is bound to be a long one and that it behoves 
us strenuously to prosecute our labours in developing our armed 
forces to carry on and bring to a successful issue the mighty 
conflict in which we are engaged. There are now in the field 
rather more than six Divisions of British troops and two Cavalry 
Divisions. These are being, and will be, maintained at full 
strength by a steady flow of reinforcements. To meet the wastage 
of war in this Field P'orce our Reserve units are available. To 
augment the Expeditionary Force further Regular Divisions and 
additional Cavalry are now being organised from units with- 
drawn from stations overseas, wliose places where necessary will 
be taken by Territorial troops, who, with fine patriotism, have 
volunteered to exchange a Home for an Imperial Service obli- 
gation. 

On their way from India are certain Divisions from the 
Indian Army, composed of highly trained and very efficient 
troops, and a body of Cavalry including regiments of historic 
fame. The Dominions beyond the seas are sending us freely of 
their best. Several Divisions will be available, formed of men 
who have been locally trained in the light of the experience of 
the South African War, and, in the case of Australia and New 
Zealand, under the system of general national training introduced 
a few years ago. In the response to the call for reciiiits for the 
new Armies which it is considered necessary to raise we have had 
a most remarkable demonstration of the energy and patriotism 
of the young men of this country. We propose to organise this 
splendid material into four new Armies, and although it takes 
time to train an Army the zeal and good will displayed will 
greatly simplify our task. 

If some of those who have so readily come forward have 
suffered inconvenience they will not, I am sure, allow their 
ardour to be damped. They will reflect that the War Office has 



HOUSE OF LORDS, SEPTEMBER 17, 1914 

had in a day to deal with as many recruits as were usually forth- 
coming in twelve months. No effort is being spared to meet the 
influx of soldiers, and the War Office will do its utmost to look 
after them and give them the efficient training necessary to 
enable them to join their comrades in the field. The Divisions 
of the first two Armies are now collected at our Training Centres ; 
the Third Army is being formed on new camping grounds ; the 
Fourth Army is being created by adding to the establishment of 
the reserve battalions, from which the units will be detached and 
organised similarly to the other three Armies. The whole of 
the Special Reserve and Extra Special Reserve units will be 
maintained at their full establishments as feeders to the Expe- 
ditionary Force. 

In addition to the four new Armies, a considerable number 
of what may be designated local battalions have been specially 
raised by the public-spirited initiative of cities, towns or indi- 
viduals. Several more are in course of formation, and I have 
received many offers of tliis character. The Territorial Force is 
making great strides in efficiency, and w411 before many months 
be ready to take a share in the campaign. This force is proving 
its military value to the Empire by the willing subordination 
of personal feelings to the public good in the acceptance of 
whatever duty may be assigned to it in any portion of the Empire. 
A Division has already left for Egypt, a Brigade for Malta, and 
a Garrison for Gibraltar. The soldier-like qualities evinced by 
the Force are an assurance to the Government that they may 
count to the full upon its readiness to play its part wherever the 
exigencies of the military situation may demand. Nor must I 
omit to refer to the assistance which we shall receive from the 
Division of the gallant Royal Marines and Bluejackets now 
being organised by my right hon. friend the First Lord of the 
Admiralty. Their presence in the field will be very welcome, 
for their fighting qualities are well known. 

The creation of the new Armies referred to is fraught with 
considerable difTicullies, one of which is the provision of regi- 
mental officers. I hope the problem of supplying officers may 
be solved by the large numbers coming forward to fill vacancies 
and by promotions from the non-commissioned olficer ranks of 
the Regular forces. In a country wliich prides itself on its skill 
in, and love of, outdoor sports we ought to f)e able to find 
sufficient young men who will train and (jualify as ofTicers under 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEINIORIAL BOOK 

the guidance of the nucleus of trained officers which wc are able 
to ]ir(ni(le from India and elsewhere. If any retired officer 
competent to train troops has not yet apphed, or has not received 
an answer to a previous application, I hope that he will communi- 
cate with me at tlie War Olfice in writincr. 

But our chief tlillicully is one of materiel rather than personnel. 
It would not be in the public interest that I should refer in greater 
detail to this question, beyond saying that strenuous endeavours 
are being made to cope with the unprecedented situation, and 
that thanks to the public spirit of all grades in the various indus- 
tries affected, to whom we have appealed to co-operate with us 
and who are devoting all their energy to the task, our require- 
ments will, I feel sure, be met with all possible speed. I am 
confident that by the spring we shall have ready to take the field 
Armies which will be well trained and will prove themselves 
formidable opponents to the enemy. The Government fully 
recognise the fine spirit which animates those who have come 
forward to fight for their country, and will spare no effort to 
secure that everything is done that can be done to enable them 
worthily to contribute to the ultimate success of our arms. 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON THE 

ARMY 

AT THE GUILDHALL BANQUET, ON MONDAY, 
NOVEMBER 9, 1914 



The generous terms in which this toast has been proposed 
and the manner in which it has been received will, I am sure, 
be highly appreciated by our soldiers in the field who have shown 
such undaunted courage and endurance in carrying out their 
duty to their King and country. It is pleasant for me to be 
able to tell you that every officer returning from the front has 
the same account to bring me : " The men are doing splendidly." 
Our Regular forces in France have now beside them both Terri- 
torial and Indian troops, and I am sure it must have been a 
pleasure to the Lord Mayor and the citizens of London to read 
Sir John French's eulogy of the London Scottish. The Indian 
troops have gone into the field with the utmost enthusiasm, and 
are showing by their courage and devotion the martial spirit with 
which they are imbued. 

I should like on this occasion to voice the tribute of praise, 
of high appreciation, and of warmest gratitude that we owe to 
our gallant Allies. We have now been fighting side by side with 
our French comrades for nearly three months, and every day 
increases the admiration which our forces feel for the glorious 
French Army. Under the direction of General Joffre, who is 
not only a great miHtary leader but a great man, we may confi- 
dently rely on the ultimate success of the Allied Forces in the 
western theatre of the war. In the East the Russian Armies, 
under the brilliant leadership of the Grand Duke Nicliolas, have 
achieved victories of the utmost value and of vast strategical 
importance in the general camapign. No words of mine are 
needed to direct attention to the splendid deeds of the gallant 
Belgian Army. What they have suffered and what they have 
achieved has aroused unstinted and unbounded admiration. 
To Japan, whose sailors and soldiers have victoriously displayed 
their gallantry and fine military qualities side by side with our 



TIIK LOUD KITCHENER MEMORIAL ROOK 

own men ; to Serbia and Montcnefrro, valiantly fighting with us 
the tiirht for the smaller nations, I wish to testil'v the admira- 
tion, respeet, and trratitude of their comrades m arms ot the 
Rritish Army. 

The Rritish Empire is now fighting for its existence. I 
want every citizen to understand tliis cardinal fact, for only 
from a clear conception of the vast importance of the issue at 
stake can come the great national, moral impulse without which 
Governments, War Ministers, and even navies and armies can 
do but little. Wc have enormous advantages in our resources 
of men and material, and in that wonderful spirit of ours which 
has never understood the meaning of defeat. All these are 
great assets, but they must be used judiciously and effectively. 
I have no complaint whatever to make about the response 
to my appeals for men — and I may mention that the progress 
in military training of those who have already enlisted is most 
remarkable ; the country may well be proud of them — but I 
shall want more men, and still more, until the enemy is crushed. 
Armies cannot be called together as with a magician's wand, 
and in the process of formation there may have been discomforts 
and inconveniences and, in some cases, even downright suffering. 
I cannot promise that these conditions will wholly cease, but I 
can give you every assurance that they have already greatly 
diminished, and that everything which administrative energy 
can do to bring them to an end will assuredly be done. The 
men who come forw^ard must remember that they are enduring 
for their country's sake just as their comrades are in the shell-torn 
trenches. 

The introduction of elaborate destructive machinery with 
which our enemies had so carefully and amply supplied them- 
selves has been a subject of much eulogy on the part of military^ 
critics ; but it must be remembered that, in the matter of 
preparation, those who fix beforehand the date of war have a 
considerable advantage over their neighbours ; so far as we are 
concerned, we are clearly open to no similar suspicion. This 
development of armaments has modified the application of the 
old principles of strategy and tactics, and reduced the present 
warfare to something approximating to siege operations. Our 
losses in the trenches have been severe ; such casualties, far 
from deterring the Rritish nation from seeing the matter through, 
will act rather as an incentive to Rritish manhood to prepare 



GUILDHALL BANQUET, NOVEMBER 9, 1914 

themselves to take the places of those who have fallen. I 
think it has now been conceded that the British Army, under 
the gallant and skilled leadership of its commander, has proved 
itself to be not so contemptible an engine of war as some were 
disposed to consider it. Sir John French and his generals have 
displayed military qualities of the highest order, and the same 
level of courage and efficiency has been maintained throughout 
all ranks in the Army. 

Although, of course, our thoughts are constantly directed 
towards the troops at the front and the great task they have in 
hand, it is well to remember that the enemy will have to reckon 
with the forces of the great Dominions, the vanguard of which 
we have already welcomed in the very fine body of men forming 
the contingents from Canada and Newfoundland ; while from 
Australia, New Zealand, and other parts are coming in quick 
succession soldiers to fight for the Imperial cause. And besides 
all these, there are training in this country over a million and a 
quarter of men eagerly waiting for the call to bear their part 
in the great struggle, and as each and every soldier takes his 
place in the field, he will stand forward to do his duty, and in 
doing that duty will sustain the credit of the British Army 
which, I submit, has never stood higher than it does to-day. 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON THE 

PROGRESS OF THE WAR 
IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, NOVEMBER 26, 1914 



My Lords, since I last addressed your Lordships on the 
general military situation there have been certain important 
changes in the scene and scope of the operations on the Continent, 
and at the risk of repeating what is already common knowledge I 
think it may not be undesirable if I briefly allude to some of the 
salient features of the campaign since early in October. In 
France the German Army was then attempting an outflanking 
movement to the north of the French lines, and our troops were 
being transferred to the left flank of the French forces in order 
to prevent the enemy from pushing West, and thus threatening 
Dunkirk and Calais. The Germans were also besieging Antwerp 
and, owing to the overwhelming superiority of their heavy 
artillery which had been brought into action against that place, 
it soon become manifest that the comparatively out-of-date 
fortifications of Antwerp would not be able to resist much 
longer, and though the fall of the town was delayed, and the 
gallant Belgian garrison was safely removed by British efforts, 
Antwerp was occupied by the Germans on October 9th. With 
their flank and rear thus secured the German forces were pushed 
rapidly forward in considerable strength, their objective being 
to capture the northern coasts of France. But the delay which 
had been caused in the release of the besieging forces in front 
of Antwerp just gave time for Sir John French, by a bold forward 
march and by taking up an extended position from La Bassee 
to Dixmude, to meet this German movement and prevent the 
Germans from obtaining their objective. 

At this period Sir John French's force was increased by an 
Infantry and a Cavalry Division from England. Very severe 
fighting took place for several days, as the Germans, in con- 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

sidcTably superior forces, vi<Toroiisly attacked our left line of 
detViu'c. As an instance I may state tliat our Cavalry Divisions, 
extended for seven tniles of front in trenches, threw hack the 
fierce attacks of a whole German Army Corps for more than two 
days. Tiie arrival of the Indian Divisions on the scene was of 
great assistance to Sir Jolm French, and with French reinforce- 
ments which were being pushed up to the front the Germans 
gradually realised that their public boast to advance to Calais 
resembled closely their statement with regard to Paris. During 
all this time the long line from Lille to Verdun was maintained 
intact by our French Allies against constant attacks from the 
German * forces. The French Army have shown the greatest 
tenacity and endurance, and have displayed the highest lighting 
qualities in thus defending their positions against any advance 
of the Germans. For although they have made notable advances 
at various points, they have never yielded up a yard of their 
country since I last addressed your Lordships. 

On our left, the gallant Belgian Army held the line from 
Dixmudc to the sea and fought with their well-known pluck, 
throwing back vigorous and incessant attacks on their positions. 
Their fine resistance was supported with energy by the co- 
operation of our Fleet, which effectively shelled the German 
positions within range of our guns. Through the whole of the 
period I am now reviewing, the Belgian Army has been con- 
stantly led in the field by their King, who, though hard pressed, 
has never yet left Belgian territory, and does not intend to do 
so. Sir John French's successful resistance to the German 
advance was maintained notwithstanding German supports 
being pushed up in large numbers. At this time no less than 
eleven corps were attacking his position. At this critical period 
the 8th Division was despatched to join our forces in the field, 
and the valuable co-operation of General Foch's armies on our 
left materially strengthened the British position. On Novem- 
ber 11th a supreme effort was made by the Germans, the Prussian 
Guard being ordered to force its way through our lines at all 
costs and to carry them by sheer weight of numbers. But this 
desperate attempt failed, as had failed its predecessors. 

General Joffre having sent up strong reinforcements, a con- 
siderable portion of the British trenches in front of Ypres was 
taken over by them, and the British front being thus appreciably 
shortened our troops — which for over fourteen days and nights 



1 



HOUSE OF LORDS, NOVEMBER 26, 1914 

had never left the trenches, and never allowed the enemy to 
sustain a footing in them — have been enabled to enjoy a partial 
but most certainly well-earned rest. Several battahons of Terri- 
torial troops have joined Sir John French's forces, and have made 
their presence felt. Our losses, naturally, have been very 
heavy during such strenuous fighting, but they are slight in com- 
parison with those inflicted on the enemy. Reinforcements 
have replaced our casualties, and the troops under Sir John 
French are now refitted, in the best of spirits, and confident of 
success under their leader. 

There have been two other prominent changes in the mihtary 
situation which I should like to bring to your Lordships' notice — 
the advance of Russia and the entrance of Turkey into the field 
against the Allies. Early in October the Russian Army was 
massing on the line of the Vistula and San. The Germans were 
invading Poland from Silesia, and about October 11th had 
reached the neighbourhood of Warsaw. The Russian Army 
then took the offensive with overwhelming force, and drove the 
Germans back to their frontier, a distance of about 133 miles. 
Recently, by making use of their strategic railways and massing 
troops in the neighbourhood of the fortress of Thorn, the Ger- 
mans were able to bring a preponderating force to bear upon 
the Russian right flank on the Vistula, causing them to retire. 
After a hotly-contested battle the reinforced Russian troops 
in this neighbourhood have been able to check and defeat the 
Germans with, I believe, heavier losses than they have ever 
sustained before. In the meantime the Russian advance on 
Cracow and in the Carpathian Mountains has been uninter- 
rupted, and has driven the Austrian forces before it. 

At the end of October, without any warning, Turkey violated 
her neutrality by suddenly bombarding Odessa and other Black 
Sea ports. Previous to this she had already massed troops in 
order to invade Egypt, and armed Bedouins had crossed our 
frontier. We are now in touch with the advanced parties of the 
Turkish forces about thirty miles east of the Suez Canal. On 
the declaration of war by Turkey the Russian Armies in the 
Caucasus immediately took the offensive, and they are now 
successfully advancing on Erzerum. Fighting is also now 
going on in the mountainous district in the neighbourhood of 
Van. The hostile action of Turkey has further induced us to 
send an Indian expedition against the Turkish provinces at the 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

northern end of the Persian Gulf. This force has twice met and 
twice defeated the Turkisli troops, and has occupied the im- 
portant town of Basra. Active operations are also going on in 
South and East Africa. 

This short summary of recent military events gives me the 
opportunity to say that the Government desire to keep back 
nothing from the public that cannot be utilised to advantage by 
our enemies. It is not always easy to decide what information 
may or may not be dangerous, and whenever there is any doubt 
we do not hesitate to prevent publication. It must be remem- 
bered that in this war our troops form part of a much larger 
force engaged in the same campaign, and the dissemination of 
news in regard to one part of the forces must affect the whole. 
It is, therefore, the Commander-in-Chief of the whole Allied 
Army, General Joffre, who is the man responsible in this and 
every other matter connected with the operations of the Army 
in the field. And I feel in the strongest possible way that it is 
my duty loyally to co-operate with him and to "see that his 
wishes are carried out. Subject, however, to these considerations, 
I recognise that it is in the highest degree desirable that news 
from the front which can be circulated without detriment to 
the military position should be communicated to the country, 
and it has always been my aim, while regarding military con- 
siderations as paramount, to facilitate the circulation of all 
news which can be given with safety. I feel confident that the 
public will respond to the call which we have to make upon 
their patience and moderation with that grit which has always 
been the pride of the British nation, and will realise that such 
reticence as is preserved by the other combatants is imperatively 
demanded of them in the interests of their armies. 

Your Lordships may very reasonably expect a word from me 
as to the preparations that are being made for prosecuting 
the war in addition to keeping up the forces we now have in the 
field. The difficulties with which the War Office have had to 
contend are many and various, but I may confidently say that 
they are being met and dealt with in a more satisfactory manner 
than I at first thought possible. We feel strongly that our 
soldiers have a right to be placed in the field provided with 
all the material of war which modern conditions demand — fully 
equipped as well as efiiciently trained. The wastage of the 
fighting force naturally demands a large stock of men on which 



HOUSE OF LORDS, NOVEMBER 26, 1914 

to draw, but although the number of casualties reported is 
heavy, our actual losses are relatively low ; and it must not be 
forgotten that wounded officers and men returning to the front 
are the more valuable from having learnt the caution born of 
experience which adds to the qualifications of the bravest soldier 
who is taking part in such a campaign as this. As regards 
numbers, there 'is real need and ample room for all the men who 
are ready to come forward and serve their country, and when 
further special calls are made on the manhood of England I am 
confident they will be responded to — as before — in a manner 
and in a spirit w^hich will ensure the prosecution of the war to 
its successful conclusion. 



Kt 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON THE 

SITUATION IN JANUARY, 191 5 

IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, JANUARY 6, 1915 



My Lords, when I last addressed your Lordships six weeks 
ago General Joffre had just sent up strong reinforcements to our 
fighting line, thus enabling Field-Marshal Sir John French to 
shorten the line of front he held and to give some relief to his 
hard-pressed troops who had been so continuously working in 
the trenches. The Germans having failed in their attempt to 
penetrate our line, their Staff in the last week of November was 
busily engaged in transferring from the Western theatre of war 
several Divisions which were required to meet the critical 
situation about Lodz in Poland which I then described to your 
Lordships. This movement of troops from West to East was 
continued through the first week of December, but the enemy 
in the Western theatre was left in sufficient strength to hold the 
elaborate system of parallel lines of entrenchments, and with the 
support of an effective though reduced Artillery to contain the 
Allied troops. 

During the month of December the Allied forces have made 
progress at various points. Very gallant efforts have been made 
to take the enemy's trenches and to recapture trenches tempo- 
rarily lost. The tide of battle has ebbed and flowed with vary- 
ing success to either side. The French Army, in spite of the very 
unfavourable weather, has made noteworthy progress east of 
Rheims and in Soutliem Alsace. The operations have for some 
time, however, resolved themselves into a phase of seige warfare 
and every up-to-date invention for throwing bombs and grenades 
into the trenches has been constantly used. Our troops have 
been subjected to the hardships inseparable from a winter cam- 
paign, but, by the system of reliefs, the severe strain which the 
men have undergone in the trenches has been minimised. Our 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

soldiers, needless to say, have exhibited a constant cheerfulness 
and resource which redound to their credit. 

Altlioutrh, as I said, there has been a continuous scries of 
trench operations, the only important cnrra^cnient between the 
British Forces and the Germans was on D(C('nil)er 2()th, when 
the trenches held by tlic Indian troops were violently attacked 
at Givenchy. The Indians were, to a certain extent, surprised 
by the enemy and some of their trenches were captured, only 
to be retaken the followinnr day with considerable loss to the 
enemy by the First Army Corps which had been in reserve. The 
line thus reassumed has since been entirely maintained, and the 
Indian units have enjoyed a period of relief from the trenches. 
Sir John French's force has been increased by a number of 
Territorial units and by another Division attached to which is a 
fine Canadian regiment. 

In the Eastern theatre at the end of November the German 
Army, reinforced by troops transferred from the Western theatre, 
were able to extricate themselves, at great cost of life, from the 
critical situation in which they then were about Lodz. Assuming 
the offensive on the left bank of the Vistula, they succeeded in 
advancing by the middle of December to the line of the Rivers 
Bzura and Rawka, some 30 miles west of Warsaw. Despite 
repeated severe attacks, our gallant Russian comrades have for 
more than a fortnight frustrated violent German efforts to ad- 
vance any nearer to Warsaw. German aspirations in Poland 
have thus suffered a severe check, and it is evident that the 
Germans now realise the infinite difficulty of winter operations 
in Russia and are especially hampered by their faulty line of 
communication. Their casualties, moreover, have been very 
numerous. 

In East Prussia the situation has undergone but little change 
since the Russians succeeded at the end of November in driving 
the German Army from its prepared positions within the German 
frontier. On the right bank of the Vistula, in the Mlawa 
region, the German advance has also been arrested. In the first 
half of December the invading force was met by bold Russian 
tactics which compelled the Germans to retire behind the German 
frontier, and though Mlawa itself is once more temporarily in 
German hands, the right bank of the Vistula may be considered 
clear of the enemy, whose attempts to cross that river from south 
to north have been successfully repulsed. 



HOUSE OF LORDS, JANUARY 6, 1915 

In Galicia at the end of November Cracow was being bom- 
barded, and the Russian advanced forces had penetrated nearly 
to the plains of Hungary. In the middle of December the 
Austrians, having been reinforced, assumed the offensive and 
pushed back the Russians some 35 miles. But this success was 
short-lived. With great gallantry the Russians have gradually 
forced back the Austrian right wing once more to the Car- 
pathian passes. The Austrian retreat in the latter part of 
December has been marked by very severe casualties, and, in 
addition to vast numbers of killed and wounded, 50,000 Austrians 
are prisoners of war. 

One of the brightest spots in the mihtary operations during 
December has been the extraordinary achievement of the gallant 
Serbian Army. At the end of November their situation was 
very critical. The Serbian forces in their retreat had been 
obliged to evacuate a considerable portion of their territory. 
Belgrade was occupied on December 1st by the Austrians, who 
were then making strenuous efforts to turn the left wing of the 
Serbian Army. Suddenly the Serbians assumed the offensive 
all along the line with startling success and completely routed 
the Austrian forces in a way which evoked our highest admira- 
tion. Belgrade was reoccupied by this gallant Army exactly a 
fortnight after its capture by the Austrians. In these operations 
the Austrians suffered very heavy losses both in men and material, 
and the signal defeat of four or five Austrian corps by their 
valiant opponents cannot fail to have had a demoralising effect 
both throughout the military forces of the Dual Monarchy and 
amongst its civilian population. Meanwhile, the Montenegrin 
Army had advanced into Bosnia and captured important 
positions in the face of considerable Austrian opposition. 

In the Caucasus at the end of November the Turkish Army 
was being pushed back towards Erzerum, and during the first 
ten days of December advances were made east of Lake Van. 
Turkish reinforcements were landed on the Black Sea coast 
and operated against Batum, while the left of the Turkish main 
Army, also reinforced, advanced from about Erzerum in a 
north-easterly direction and is now engaged with Russian forces 
about Ardahan and Sarykamish. We received news last night 
of a Russian victory in the Caucasus which should have far- 
reaching influence upon all the Turkish operations which are 
being conducted under German leadership in the Near East. 



THE LORD KTTCHF.NER MEMORIAL BOOK 

In Mesopotamia our Indian Expeditionary Force has 
continued its northern advance from Basra and attacked the 
enemv at Kurna on the left bank of the river Tiorris, defeating 
the Turkish troops, inflicting heavy loss, and capturing prisoners 
and (runs. Since then the troops have consohdated the positions 
taken, and have been warmly welcomed by Arabs of the sur- 
round ins: districts. 

The nuieh-talked-of advance of the Turkish forces against 
Egypt has up to the present failed to materialise. Certain 
bodies of Turkish troops under German officers have been 
observed by our air-craft to be attempting to penetrate the 
country east of the Suez Canal, but no large force has yet ap- 
peared, and there has been scarcely any contact with our troops 
guarding the Canal. 

In East Africa our military forces are co-operating with the 
Royal Navy in carrying out certain operations against the 
enemy. An attack on the German position at Tanga was not 
successful, but we are now occupying certain points within 
German territory. Topographical difficulties, the want of water, 
and heavy bush form temporary obstacles to the further advance 
of the force which we are keeping in that field of operations. 

Since I last spoke in this House the situation in South Africa 
has undergone a most welcome change. The sinister threat of 
a widespread rebellion, so cunningly planned and fostered by 
our enemies, has disappeared before the loyal and prompt action 
of General Botha and his Ministry. General Botha handled the 
military situation in a masterly manner which calls for un- 
qualified praise, and in a very short time stamped out the re- 
bellion—if, indeed, it is not an exaggeration to apply such a 
term to tlic misguided action of a section of the population. This 
result gives us great confidence in the future success of any 
operations the General may undertake. In the Cameroons a 
mixed force under General Dobell has advanced with success and 
occupied several important positions. 

On our own coasts, on the morning of December 16th, German 
battle-cruisers bombarded for half an hour Hartlepool, Scar- 
borough and Whitby. At Hartlepool a battery replied with 
some effect, though it was outclassed by the heavy guns of the 
cniisers. No military advantage was gained, or could possibly 
have been gained, by wanton attacks on undefended seaside 
resorts, which attacks had as their chief result fatal accidents to 



HOUSE OF LORDS. JANUARY 6, 1915 

a certain number of civilians, among whom women and children 
figured pathetically. The people in the three towns bore them- 
selves in this trying experience with perfect courage and coolness, 
and not the least trace of panic could be observed. 

These, my Lords, are the principal events which have taken 
place since I last had the honour of addressing your Lordships' 
House. The great initial advantages which the Germans enjoyed 
by reason of the numerical superiority and extensive war pre- 
parations of their Army are certainly diminishing, while the 
Allies are daily increasing those resources of men and material 
that will enable them to prosecute the war to a triumphant end. 
Recruiting has proceeded on normal lines, and the anticipated 
decrease of numbers in Christmas week has given way to a rise 
which has almost restored the weekly return of recniits to the 
former satisfactory level. The Parliamentary Recniiting Com- 
mittee has completed the distribution of Householders' Forms 
to inhabitants of country towns and districts, and, before Christ- 
mas, began to distribute to the large to^\Tis and cities.^ Over 
218,000 names of persons willing to serve have been registered, 
and there is every reason to anticipate fruitful results from the 
valuable work which has been done by and through this Com- 
mittee. 

The Recruiting Department is also in close touch with 
Territorial Force Associations, municipal bodies, and Labour 
Exchanges, and everything is being done to facilitate the enlist- 
ment of those presenting themselves. It is worthy of remark 
that there is no better recruiting agent than the soldier himself, 
and in many cases a large portion of a man's leave has been spent 
by him in encouraging the youths in his home district to enter 
the service of their country. In the earlier stages of the war 
considerable difficulty was experienced and anxiety felt, owing 
to the dearth of officers, but I am glad to say that we have now 
been able to fill up the officers' cadres of the Expeditionary Force, 
and a considerable surplus of training officers is available to 
draw upon. It is not amiss in this respect to recall to mind the 
appeal which I made in your Lordships' House and to point to 
the fact that, since the war began, no fewer than 29,100 officers 
have been appointed to the Army. 

Close and vigilant attention' on the part of the War Office 
staff has served to cope with, and gradually to overcome, the 
difficulties of securing supplies and equipment for those new 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

forces to whose future activities we look forward with all confi- 
dence. The training of tlie Canadian contingent and the new 
armies has been carried on lately luider the worst weather 
conditions ; but, in spite of this, a great deal of extremely good 
work has ])een done during the past month. The discomforts 
and hardships due to storm and wet and mud have been cheer- 
fully met, and both ofTieers and men are imbued with one common 
thought — that of preparing themselves as thoroughly and as 
rapidly as possible to take their part in the field, where I am sure 
they will worthily support their comrades in arms. 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON THE WAR 
AND LABOUR DIFFICULTIES 

IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, MARCH 15, 1915 



My Lords, for many weeks only trench fighting has been pos- 
sible owing to the climatic conditions and waterlogged state of 
the ground. During this period of apparent inaction it must not 
be forgotten that our troops have had to exercise the utmost 
individual vigilance and resource, and owing to the proximity 
of the enemy's lines a great strain has been imposed upon them. 
Prolonged warfare of this sort might be expected to affect the 
morale of an Army, but the traditional qualities of patience, good 
temper, and determination have maintained our men, though 
highly tried, in a condition ready to act with all the initiative and 
courage required when the moment for an advance arrived. The 
recently published accounts of the fighting in France have 
enabled us to appreciate how successfully our troops have taken 
the offensive. The German troops, notwithstanding their care- 
fully prepared and strongly entrenched positions, have been 
driven back for a considerable distance, and the villages of 
Neuve Chapelle and L'Epinette have been captured and held by 
our Army, with heavy losses to the enemy. 

In these operations our Indian troops took a prominent 
part and displayed fine fighting qualities. I will in this connec- 
tion read a telegram I have received from Sir John French : 

*' Please transmit following message to Viceroy of 
India : I am glad to be able to inform your Excellency that 
the Indian troops under General Sir James Willeocks fought 
with great gallantry and marked success in the capture of 
Neuve Chapelle and subsequent fighting which took place 
on the tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth of this month. 
The fighting was very severe and the losses heavy, but 
nothing daunted them. Their tenacity., courage, and endu- 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK || 

ranee were admirable and wortliy of the best traditions of the 
soldiers of India." 

I should like also to mention that the Canadian Division showed 
their mettle, and have reecived the warm commendation of Sir 
Jolin Freneh for the liicfh spirit and bravery with whieh they 
have performed tlieir part. Our casualties during the three 
days' fightinof, though probably severe, are not nearly so heavy 
as "those suffered by the enemy, from whom a large number of 
prisoners have been taken. 

Since I last spoke in this House substantial reinforcenients 
have been sent to France. They include the Canadian Division, 
the North ^lidland Division, and the 2nd London Division, 
besides other units. These are the first complete Divisions of 
the Territorial Force to go to France, where I am sure they will 
do credit to themselves and sustain the high reputation which 
the Territorials have already won for themselves there. The 
health of the troops has been remarkably good, and their freedom 
from enteric fever and from the usual diseases incidental to field 
operations is a striking testimony to the value of inoculation and 
to the advice and skill of the Royal Army Medical Corps and its 
auxiliary organisations. The French Army, except for a slight 
withdrawal near Soissons, owing to their reinforcements being 
cut off by the swollen state of the Aisne River, have made further 
important progress at various points on the long line they hold, 
especiallv in Champagne. Association with both our Allies in 
the Western theatre has only deepened our admiration of their 
resolute tenacity and fighting qualities. 

In the Eastern theatre the violent German attacks on 
Warsaw have failed in their purpose, and considerable concen- 
trations of German troops to attack the Russian positions in 
East Prussia, after causing a retirement, are now either well 
held or are being driven back. In the Caucasus fresh defeats 
have been inflicted by the Russians on the Turks, and the latter 
have also been repulsed by our forces in Egypt when they at- 
tempted to attack the Suez Canal. The operations now pro- 
ceeding against the Dardanelles show the great power of the 
Allied Fleets, and although at the present stage I can say no 
more than what is given in the public Press on the subject, your 
Lordships may rest assured that the matter is well in hand. 

The work of supplying and equipping new Armies depends 



HOUSE OF LORDS, MARCH 15, 1915 

largely on our ability to obtain the war material required. Our 
demands on the industries concerned with the manufacture of 
munitions of war in this country have naturally been very great, 
and have necessitated that they and other ancillary trades 
should work at the highest possible pressure. The armament 
firms have promptly responded to our appeal, and have under- 
taken orders of vast magnitude. The great majority also of the 
employees have loyally risen to the occasion and have worked 
and are working overtime and on night shifts in all the various 
workshops and factories in the country. Notwithstanding these 
efforts to meet our requirements, we have unfortunately found 
that the output is not only not equal to our necessities but does 
not fulfil our expectations' for a very large number of our orders 
have not been completed by the dates on which they were pro- 
mised. 

The progress in equipping our new Armies and also in sup- 
plying the necessary war material for our forces in the field has 
been seriously hampered by the failure to obtain sufficient labour 
and by delays in the production of the necessary plant, largely 
due to the enormous demands not only of ourselves but of our 
Allies. While the workmen generally, as I have said, have 
worked loyally and well there have, I regret to say, been instances 
where absence, irregular time-keeping, and slack work have led 
to a marked diminution in the output of our factories. In some 
cases the temptations of drink account for this failure to work 
up to the high standard expected. It has been brought to my 
notice on more than one occasion that the restrictions of trade 
unions have undoubtedly added to our difficulties, not so much 
in obtaining sufficient labour as in making the best use of that 
labour. I am confident, however, that the seriousness of the 
position as regards our supplies has only to be mentioned and 
all concerned will agree to waive for the period of the war any of 
those restrictions which prevent in the very slightest degree our 
utilising all the labour available to the fullest extent that is 
possible. 

I cannot too earnestly point out that unless the whole nation 
works with us and for us, not only in supplying the manhood of 
the country to serve in our ranks but also in supplying the neces- 
sary arms, ammunition, and equipment, successful operations in 
the various parts of the world in which we are engaged will be 
very seriously hampered and delayed. I have heard rumours 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

that the workmen in some faetories have an idea tliat the war is 
going so well that there is no necessity for them to work their 
hardest. I can only say that the supply of war material at the 
present moment and for the next two or three months is causing 
me very serious anxiety, and I wish all those engaged in the 
manufacture and supply of these stores to realise that it is abso- 
lutely essential, not only that the arrears in the deliveries of 
our munitions of war should be wiped off, but that the output of 
every round of ammunition is of the utmost importance and has 
a large influence on our operations in the field. 

The Bill which my noble friend the Leader of the House is 
about to place before your Lordships as an amendment to the 
Defence of the Realm Act is calculated to rectify this state of 
things as far as is possible, and in my opinion it is imperatively 
necessary. In such a large manufacturing country as our own 
the enormous output of what we require to place our troops in 
the field thoroughly equipped and found with ammunition is 
undoubtedly possible ; but, my Lords, this output can only be 
obtained by a careful and deliberate organisation for developing 
the resources of the country so as to enable each competent work- 
man to utilise in the most useful manner possible all his ability 
and energy in the common object which we all have in view, 
which is the successful prosecution and victorious termination 
of this war. I feel sure that there is no business or manufactur- 
ing firm in this country that will object for one moment to any 
delay or loss caused in the produce of their particular industry 
when they feel that they and their men are taking part with us 
in maintaining the soldiers in the field with those necessaries 
without which they cannot fight. 

As I have said, the regular armament firms have taken on 
enormous contracts vastly in excess of their ordinary engage- 
ments in normal times of peace. We have also spread orders 
both in the form of direct contracts and sub-contracts over a 
large number of subsidiary firms not accustomed in peace time 
to this class of manufacture. It will, I am sure, be readily 
understood that when new plant is available for the production 
of war material those firms that are not now so engaged should 
release from their own work the labour necessary to keep the 
machinery fully occupied on the production for which it is being 
laid down as well as to supply sufficient labour to keep working 
at full power the whole of the machinery which we now have. 



HOUSE OF LORDS, MARCH 15. 1915 

I hope, my Lords, that this result will be attained under the 
provisions of the Bill now about to be placed before you. 

Labour may very rightly ask that their patriotic work 
should not be used to inflate the profits of the directors and 
shareholders of the various great industrial and armament 
firms, and we are therefore arranging a system under which the 
important armament firms will come under Government control, 
and we hope that workmen who work regularly by keeping good 
time shall reap some of the benefits which the war automatically 
confers on these great companies. I feel strongly, my Lords, 
that the men working long hours in the shops by day and by 
night, week in and week out, are doing their duty for their King 
and country in a like manner with those who have joined the Army 
for active service in the field. They are thus taking their part 
in the war and displaying the patriotism that has been so mani- 
festly shown by the nation in all ranks, and I am glad to be able 
to state that His Majesty has approved that where service in 
this great work of supplying the munitions of war has been 
thoroughly, loyally, and continuously rendered, the award of a 
medal will be granted on the successful termination of the war. 




LORD KITCHENER INSPECTING PART OF HIS NEW ARMY 

ORAWINQ BY CYRUS CUNEO 
Reproduced bv courtesy of "The IHustrrttod London News." 




IXJHD KITCIIKNI-.U IN TIIK HOUKS OF A KNI(;ilT OK TIIK (;aHTI;II. I.OItl) KITCIIKNKn WAS CUICATED 

A KNUJirr OK Tnr: oartku on tiik king's hiiitiiday in junk, 1915 

Drawing reproduced by courtesy of " The Sphere " 




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;iiLiiiM;it i)i<ivi.\(j TiiiiULuii 111: ciii mi tiii GUILDH^VLL, 1911 
By courtesy of the Press Photographic Agency 




i.oiti) KiK iiKNKit A r iiii; (,i ii.niiAi,!, Kixm tum. 
by courtesy of Topical Press Agency 




IvITCIIENER WITH C(M.OM.I. .MA( I,l.()l> Xl.-^lllM, .-illlAnAK .Mllt DASl, V .C, l.O.M. 

By courtesy of the Central News, Ltd. 





,ORD KITCHENER WITH THE FRENCH WAR MINISTER INSPECTING TROOPS AT EPSOM DURING A HEAVY OOWNFALL 

OF SNOW 

By courtesy of the Central Press 




THE AHRIVAI, <>l (.I.MJtAI, ( \i>iiU\A IS loNliiiS. I i KIM III Mil MI.I.IIN(. Illl, 

ITALIAN (;i;ni:iiai,issim(j 
By courtesy of the Sport and General Press Agency, iJd. 




)i;ii Kill 111. m;i: -ii\kim; iianh^ wiiii imhan soldiers IN THE GROUNDS OF A nospiTAi> 
By courtesy of the Central News, Ltd. 




Tin: KINU AND LOlllJ KITCIIEMCK AT AN INSPliIL HON Ol 1 HOOPS AT WINClIKSTr.It. SOI.UIEKS LINING 
THE ROAO AND CHEERING THE ROYAL CAR 

By courtesy of the Sfort and General Press Agency, Ltd. 




LOKI) KITCIll.NKK AM) MR. ASQL ITII KN I!Ol TK I OR TllK ALLIES* CONFERENCE AT CALAIS 

By courtesy of '' I' he Sfhere " 



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i.oui) Krrciii.Ni.ii AT Tin. ai.lii.-. i o.vit;uence 

IN I'AKIh 

By courtesy of Newspaper I ilustradons, iJd. 




LOKI) KirCIIENKU AND (JKNKRAL .TOIl HI. AI rill'. 
CALAIS CONIEUKNCE 

By courtesy of " The Sphere " 




M. Mll.l.EllAM), M. UELCA>>1., l.OKl 



tUKUi: AM) M. ALUEKT THOMAS KNTKIUNO TriK AI.LIKS CON 1 KIIKNCK 

CHAMBER IN CALAIS By courtesy of " The Sphere " 




LOKU KITCUENEK LEAVING THE CONFERENCE CHAMBER AFTER THE CONFERENCE 

By courtesy of " The Sphere " 




LOnu KITCHENER LEAVING Till. HOTEL IN PAULS AITKK ONE OF HIS VISITS 

By courtesy of Newspaper Illustrations, Ltd. 




LORIJ KITCUENER AND MR. ASQUITH CHATTING WITH A FRENCH SOLDIER IN FRANCK 

By courtesy of N ews-pa-per Illustrations, Ltd. 




I,OIU) KITCMENKlt .STANKINU AT TIIK SAI.UIK Willi. E HIE NAIMJNAI, AMIIEM IS m:iN(; IM.AVEO. IN Till 
PHOTOGRAPH ARE GENERALS JOFIRE, EliENER, lOCH, WILSON AND DUHOIS 

By courtesy of " The Sphere " 




LORU KITCIIKNKR AND VISCOUNT GKKY IN PARIS 

By courtesy of the Topical Press Agency 




LORD KITCHENER ACKNOWLEUGING THE CHEEKS OE THE FRENCH POPULACE 

By courtesy of Newsfafer illustrations, Ltd. 



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I.(j|;;. Kl K IIKNKK WITH GKNKHAI. JOI im; A I A niAII.W in I Ki:\( II TROOPS. SALUTING THE FLAG AS IT PASSES 

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i.oiii) kikiunm: wirii ciskkai, .joii uk inspixting nticNCii tiioops in a town in ihance 
By courtesy of the Al fieri Picture Service 




LORD KITCHtNER AND GENERAL JOFFRE IN A I-IRST LINE TRENCH IN FRANCE 
By courtesy of the Al fieri Picture Service 




LORD KITCHENER AT THE FRENCH FRONT NEAR THE FIRING LINE 

By courtesy of the Al fieri Picture Service 




LOKIJ KITCHENER MEETING GENERAL BARATIER, WHO WAS AT FASHODA AT THE SAME TIME AS 

LORO KITCHENER By courtesy of " The Sphere 




LOHii KiiiiiiNKR { ONrjKAii I A I i.s (;i.m.i:ai, .11 i,ii;n. I!i:ii[ni) ahi: generals .ioffre and franchet 

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TIIL; 11U111.>11 WAU .MlMSli:H t)N HIS way to visit TMK I IHST I.IM; TIUCNCTIKS in IT!ANCE 

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By courtesy of " The S-phere " 








LORD KITCHENER PASSING ALONG A PROTECTED COMMUNICATION PASSAGE AFTER HIS VISIT TO THE TRENCHES 

By courtesy of " The Sfhere " 




LORD laXCllENER WITH INUIAN SOLDIERS 

By courtesy of the Tofical Press Agency 




LORD KITCHKNEU WITH THE KING OF ITALY AND GENERAL C ADORNA 

by courtesy of the Topical Press Agency 




LOIU) KITCUKNER WITH THE LOUD MAYOR AT AN INSPECTrON OF THE II.A.C. IN 1915 

By courtesy of the Topical Press Agency 




i.uui) Kn'ciiKM:u in miiii ai Ai.Diitsiior in 1 
By courtesy of News-paper Illustrations, Ltd 



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LORD KITCHENER AT AN INSPECTION OF THE LONDON VOLUNTEERS (NATIONAL GUARD) AT WELLINUTON 

BARRACKS By courtesy of the Al fieri Picture Service 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON THE 

SITUATION 

IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, MAY 18, 1915 



My Lords, there has been no marked change or decisive action 
in the various theatres of war since I last addressed your 
Lord hips on the mihtary situation. In Flanders the drying up 
of tiid ground and the improvement in the weather have enabled 
our troops, which have been strongly reinforced, to take the 
offensive. The action at Neuve Chapelle was fought with great 
gallantry and enabled us to occupy a considerable and, from a 
military point of view, valuable position which had hitherto been 
held by the Germans. 

Towards the end of last month the Germans carried out a 
violent attack on that portion of the Allied front held by the 
French to the north-east of the Ypres salient. In order to 
succeed in this attack the enemy employed vast quantities of 
poisonous gases in defiance of the recognised rules of war and 
of their pledged word. Our soldiers and our French Allies were 
utterly unprepared for this diabolical method of attack, which 
had undoubtedly been long and carefully prepared by the enemy. 
Full accounts have been published in the newspapers of the 
effect of the gas and the agonising death which it produces. 
The Germans have persisted in the use of these asphyxiating 
gases whenever the wind favoured or other opportunity occurred, 
and His Majesty's Government, no less than the French Govern- 
ment, feel that our troops must be adequately protected by the 
employment of similar methods so as to remove the enormous 
and unjustifiable disadvantage which must exist for them if we 
take no steps to meet on his own ground the enemy who is 
responsible for the introduction of this pernicious practice. 

The forced retirement in front of the heavy clouds of gas 
which preceded the German advance aL Ypres resulted in the 

M 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEISIORIAL BOOK 

left tlank of the Canadian Division being exposed. The Canadians 
siiffcretl severely from the poisonous fumes, but notwithstanding 
held on to their position in the most determined manner. This 
was, indeed, an ordeal to try the qualities of the finest army in 
the world, and all the more credit is due to the soldiers of Canada 
who, unprepared for such an attack, and exposed to a withering 
fire, reluctantly and with perfect steadiness withdrew their left 
flank to conform to the new alignment of the Allies' position. 
The Canadians, however, were soon supported by British Brigades 
pushed up, and the enemy's advance was thereby checked, and 
the Germans, whose efforts had cost them dear, were unable to 
press forward any further in this quarter. As a result of this 
retirement Sir John French decided to draw back his line from 
the salient at Ypres which we had occupied through the whole 
winter. This withdrawal was carried out with masterly success 
on May 3rd, and it was satisfactory to note that though an opera- 
tion of this sort, in immediate contact with the enemy, is a diffi- 
cult military achievement and usuaUy fraught with heavy losses, 
no serious casualties attached to it. The Germans have since 
attempted furious onslaughts on our positions in front of Ypres, 
each of which has been repulsed with severe losses to the enemy. 

In pursuance of concerted plans between General Joffre and 
Sir John French, a vigorous offensive was taken by the French 
Army south of La Bassee and from Arras in the direction of 
Douai, w^hile at the same time the British Army co-operated 
towards the Aubers ridge. We have all followed with admira- 
tion the forward movement of our brave AJlies in their offensive 
operations, which have been marked by complete success and 
which are still proceeding with every promise and indication of 
further wholly satisfactory results. The attack delivered by 
our forces was at first not attended with the same immediate 
success owing to the elaborate arrangements that had been 
aiade by the Germans to defend their lines after their experience 
of our attack at Neuve Chapelle. But on the night of May 15th, 
by a renewed effort, the British forces drove back the enemy 
on a front of approximately two miles for a considerable distance 
and captured niore than 500 prisoners. This action is also 
proceeding, and we hope, in contbrmity with the French opera- 
tions, will achieve important results. 

Offensive operations against the enemy's trenches demand, 
as we have known for some time, an enormous expenditure of 



HOUSE OF LORDS, MAY 18, 1915 

ammunition, both of our usual type and of the high explosive 
pattern that we are now making. Your Lordships and the 
country are aware of the energetic steps that liave been taken 
to produce a sufficient amount of ammunition to supply the 
Army in the field. There has been undoubtedly considerable 
delay in producing the material which we at an early stage in 
the war foresaw would be required. This delay is due mainly 
to the unprecedented and almost unlimited calls that have been 
made on the resources of the manufacturers of this country. 
Strenuous efforts have been taken by all concerned to reduce as 
far as possible this delay in production, and I am glad to say 
that already a very considerable improvement in the output has 
been the result of the energy and good work of all concerned. 

High explosive shells for field guns have recently been 
brought into prominence by comments in the Press. At an early 
stage in the war we took the preliminary steps to manufacture 
these new projectiles, and though the introduction of any new 
departure in munitions of war naturally causes delay and diffi- 
culty to manufacturers, I am confident that in the very near 
future we shall be in a satisfactory position with regard to the 
supply of these shells to the Army at the Front. In these recent 
offensive operations our losses and those of the French have been 
heavy, but the tasks that our Armies have accomplished neces- 
sitated great sacrifices, and the spirit and morale of our troops 
have never been higher than at the present moment. 

In the Eastern theatre a concentration of German and 
Austrian forces, which took place during March and April to the 
south of Cracow, developed into active operations against the 
position held by the Russian 3rd Army on the line from Tarnow 
through Gorlice to the Rostoki Pass. These offensive operations 
by the German and Austrian forces were necessitated by the 
Russian success, after the fall of Przemysl, in the Usok Pass and 
in the Carpathians, which threatened to give entire access on to 
the plains of Hungary to a Russian invading force. The Austro- 
German offensive began on the night of April 26th by an attack 
in the Gorlice region, and a desperate battle raged for several 
days along the Russian front. The enemy's artillery fire, 
especially that of their heavy guns, was overwhelming, and the 
Russians, despite the greatest gallantry, were compelled to fall 
back. Further German forces were poured in to press the 
Russians, who, fighting with their well-known tenacity, retired 

M2 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

steadily towards the positions on the River San which had been 
previously prci:)arcd. The retirement in West Galicia led to a 
Russian withdrawal from part of the Carpathians, and the 
Russians now hold a strong line from the Eastern Carpathians to 
Przemysl, which place forms the pivot of their line, and thence 
alone: the San to the Vistula. 

In Bokovina the Russians have made a counter offensive, 
and have driven the Austrians back from the River Dneister to 
the River Pruth. The German losses in killed and wounded in 
these operations have been undoubtedly enormous, and many 
thousands of unwounded prisoners have fallen into the hands of 
the Russians. 

In connection with the attack on the Dardanelles forts a 
body of troops, comprising British, Australian and New Zealand 
soldiers, with a naval Division, and in co-operation with a French 
Force, landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula. With the assistance 
and co-operation of the Navy they have been able to consolidate 
their positions and to advance further on the lines they imme- 
diately captured. The landing itself, effected in the teeth of 
great natural ditliculties, skilfully prepared obstacles, and armed 
opposition, was a masterpiece of organisation, ingenuity and 
courage which will long be remembered. The progress of our 
troops is necessarily slow since the country is most diliicult. But 
the Turks are gradually being forced to retire from positions of 
great strength, and though the enemy is being constantly rein- 
forced the news from this front is thoroughly satisfactory. 

The recent operations under the command of General 
Botha in South- West Africa have been brought to a most success- 
ful stage by the occupation of Windhoek. The military ability 
displayed by General Botha has been of a very high order, and 
has confirmed the admiration felt for him as a commander and 
leader of men. His task was carried out under conditions of 
considerable difficulty, especially as regards transport, water, 
and supplies. All these have been successfully overcome, and 
the campaign has now, happily, entered its final phase. 

In 5lesopotamia our Indian soldiers have shown their value 
and bravery by attacking and utterly routing the Turkish forces 
sent against them. Sir John Nixon is following up the results 
of his victory, and the whole country is gradually being cleared 
of all hostile forces. 

In my first speech m your Lordships' House I pointed out 



HOUSE OF LORDS, MAY 18, 1915 

that this war would be a long one and would demand great sacri- 
fices. Those sacrifices have been cheerfully made by the people 
of this country, who not only immediately responded in vast 
numbers to the summons to create the new Armies required, but 
have since continuously supplied the constant stream of recruits 
which has enabled us to maintain the forces in the field and in 
training at their full strength and with effective men. Your 
Lordships have watched the growth of the new Armies, and have 
noted, doubtless, the difficulties which have confronted us in 
providing them with all the material of war they require. I 
cannot speak too highly of the men and of the devotion to duty 
they have displayed during the long months of training, or of 
their cheerful acceptance of hardships incidental to an inclement 
winter, which has provoked the admiration of the expert officers 
who have reported to me as to the wonderfully rapid progress 
made in their training to become efficient soldiers. I am certain 
that in the activities in the field which immediately await them 
these men will worthily sustain the reputation they have already 
attained at home. 

I have said that I would let the country know when more 
men should be wanted for the war. The time has come, and I 
now call for 300,000 recruits to form new Armies. Those who 
are engaged in the production of war material of any kind should 
not leave their work. It is to men who are not performing this 
duty I appeal, and I am convinced that the manhood of England 
still available will loyally respond by coming forward to take 
their share in this great struggle for a great cause. 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON 
RECRUITING 
AT THE GUILDHALL, JULY 9, 1915 



Hitherto the remarks that I have found it necessary to make 
on the subject of recruiting have been mainly addressed to the 
House of Lords ; but I have felt that the time has now come 
when I may with advantage avail myself of the courteous invita- 
tion of theLord Mayor to appear among you, and in this historic 
Guildhall make another and a larger demand on the resources 
of British manhood. Enjoying, as I do, the privilege of a Free- 
man of this great City, I can be sure that words uttered in the 
heart of London will be spread broadcast throughout the Empire. 

Our thoughts naturally turn to the splendid efforts of the 
Oversea Dominions and India, who, from the earliest days of the 
war, have ranged themselves side by side with the Mother 
Country. The prepared armed forces of India were the first 
to take the field, closely followed by the gallant Canadians who 
are now fighting alongside their British and French comrades in 
Flanders, and are there presenting a solid and impenetrable 
front against the enemy. 

In the Dardanelles the Australians and New Zealanders, 
combined with the same elements, have already accomplished a 
feat of arms of almost unexampled brilliancy, and are pushing the 
campaign to a successful conclusion. In each of these great 
Dominions new and large contingents are being prepared, while 
South Africa, not content with tlie successful conclusion of the 
arduous campaign in South-West Africa, is now offering large 
forces to engage; the enemy in the main theatre of war. 

Strengthened })y tlie unflincliing support of our fellow-citizens 
across the seas, we seek to develop our own military resources to 
their utmost limits, and this is the purpose which brings us 
together to-day. Napoleon, when asked wliat were the three 
thmgs necessary for a successful war, replied, " Money, money, 
money." To-day we^vary that phrase, and say, " Men, material. 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

and money." As regards the supply of money for the war, the 
Government are neootiating a new Loan, the marked success of 
wliieh is frreatly (hie to the very favourable response made by the 
City. To meet the need for material, the energetic manner in 
which the new Ministry of Munitions is coping with the many 
dillieulties which confront the production of our great require- 
ments affords abundant proof tliat this very important work is 
being dealt with in a highly satisfactory manner. 

There still remains the vital need for men to fill the ranks 
of our armies, and it is to emphasise this point and bring home 
to the people of this country that I have come here this afternoon. 
When I took up the oflice that I hold I did so as a soldier, not as 
a politician, and I warned my fellow-countrymen that the war 
would be not only arduous, but long. In one of my earliest 
statements, made after the beginning of the war, I said that I 
should require " More men, and still more, until the enemy is 
crushed." I repeat that statement to-day with even greater 
insistence. All the reasons which led me to think in August, 
1914, that this war would be a prolonged one hold good at the 
present time. It is true we are in an immeasurably better situa- 
tion now than ten months ago, but the position to-day is at least 
as serious as it was then. 

The thorough preparedness of Germany, due to her strenuous 
efforts, sustained at high pressure for some forty years, has issued 
in a military organisation as complex in character as it is perfect 
in machinery. Never before has any nation been so elaborately 
organised for imposing her will upon the other nations of the 
world ; and her vast resources of military strength are wielded by 
an autocracy which is peculiarly adapted for the conduct of war. 
It is true that Germany's long preparation has enabled her to 
utilise her whole resources from the very commencement of the 
war, while our policy is one of gradually increasing our effective 
forces. It might be said with truth that she must decrease, while 
we must increase. 

Our voluntary system, which as you well know has been the 
deliberate choice of the English people, has rendered it necessary 
that our forces in peace time should be of relatively slender 
dimensions, with a capacity for potential expansion ; and we 
have habitually relied on time being allowed us to increase our 
armed forces during the progress of hostilities. 

The opening of the war found us, therefore, in our normal 



GUILDHALL, JULY 9, 1915 

military situation, and it became our immediate task — con- 
currently with the despatch of the first Expeditionary Force — to 
raise new armies, some of which have already made their presence 
felt at the front, and to provide for a strong and steady stream 
of reinforcements to maintain our Army in the field at full 
fighting strength. 

From the first there has been a satisfactory and constant 
flow of reciniits, and the falling-off in numbers recently apparent 
in recruiting returns has been, I believe, in great degree due to 
circumstances of a temporary character. 

. It would be difficult to exaggerate the value of the response 
that has been made to my previous appeals, but I am here 
to-day to make another demand on the manhood of the country 
to come forward to its defence. I was from the first unwilling 
to ask for a supply of men in excess of the equipment available 
for them. I hold it to be most undesirable that soldiers keen to 
take their place in the field should be thus checked and possibly 
discouraged, or that the completion of this training should be 
hampered owing to lack of arms. We have now happily reached 
a period when it can be said that this drawback has been 
surmounted and that the troops in training can be supplied 
with sufficient arms and material to turn them out as efficient 
soldiers. 

When the great rush of recruiting occurred in August and 
September of last year, there was a natural difficulty in finding 
accommodation for the many thousands who answered to the call 
for men to complete the existing armed forces and the New 
Armies. Now, however, I am glad to say, we have throughout 
the country provided accommodation calculated to be sufficient 
and suitable for our requirements. Further, there was in 
the early autumn a very natural difficulty in clothing and 
equipping the newly-raised units. Now we are able to clothe and 
equip all recruits as they come in, and thus the call for men is no 
longer restricted by any limitations such as the lack of material 
for training. 

It is an axiom that the larger an army is, the greater is its 
need of an cvcr-swolling number of men of rccruitable age to 
maintain it at its full strength ; yet, at the very same time, the 
supply of those very men is automatically decreasing. Nor must 
it be forgotten that the great demand which has arisen for the 
supply of munitions, equipment, etc., for the armed forces of 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

tliis country and of our Allies also, as well as the economic and 
financial necessity of kccpintr up the production of manufactured 
aoods, involves the retention of a large number of men in various 
trades and manufactures, many of whom would otherwise be 
available for the Colours. 

In respect of our great and increasmg military requirements 
for men, I am glad to state how much we are indebted to the help 
given to the Recruiting Staff of the Regular Army and to the 
Territorial Associations throughout the country by the many 
Voluntary Recruiting Committees formed in all the counties and 
cities and in many important boroughs for this purpose. The 
recruiting by the Regular Staff and the Territorial Associations has 
been most carefully and thoroughly carried out, and the relations 
between them and the various committees I have referred 
to have been both cordial and mutually helpful. The Parlia- 
mentary Recruiting Com.mittee has done most excellent work in 
organising meetings and providing speakers in all parts of the 
country in conjunction with the various local committees It is 
impossible to refer by name to all committees that have helped, 
but I must just mention the work of the Lord Mayor's Committee 
in the City of London ; of the committees in the several districts 
of Lancashire, where we are much indebted to the organising 
powers and initiative of Lord Derby ; and of the several com- 
mittees in Greater London, Manchester, Liverpool, Bristol, 
Cardiff, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dublin, and Belfast. To these 
must be added the Central Recruiting Council for Ireland, with 
a number of county committees, as well as the Automobile 
Association. 

The time has now come when something more is required 
to ensure the demands of our forces overseas being fully met, and 
to enable the large reserve of men imperatively required for the 
proper conduct of the war to be formed and trained. The 
public has watched with eager interest the growth and the 
rapidly-acquired efficiency, of the New Armies, whose dimen- 
sions have already reached a figure which only a short while 
ago would have been considered utterly unthinkable. But there 
is a tendency perhaps to overlook the fact that these larger 
Armies require still larger reserves, to make good the wastage at 
the front. And one cannot ignore the certainty that our require- 
ments in this respect will be large, continuous and persistent ; 
for one feels that our gallant soldiers in the fighting line are 



GUILDHALL, JULY 9, 1915 

beckoning, with an urgency at once imperious and pathetic, to 
those who remain at home to come out and play their part too. 

Recruiting meetings, recruiting marches, and the unwearied 
labours of the recruiting officers, committees, and individuals have 
borne good fruit, and I look forward with confidence to such 
labours being continued as energetically as hitherto. 

But we must go a step further, so as to attract and attach 
individuals who, from shyness or other causes, have not yet 
yielded to their own patriotic impulses. The Government have 
asked Parliament to pass a Registration Bill, with the object of 
ascertaining how many men and women there are in the country, 
between the ages of fifteen and sixty-five, eligible for the national 
service, whether in the Navy or Army, or for the manufacture of 
munitions, or to fulfil other necessary services. When this 
registration is completed we shall anyhow be able to note the 
men between the ages of nineteen and forty not required for 
munition or other necessary industrial work, and therefore avail- 
able, if physically fit, for the fighting fine. Steps will be taken to 
approach, with a view to enlistment, all possible candidates for the 
Army — unmarried men to be preferred before married men, as 
far as may be. 

Of course the work of completing the Registration will 
extend over some weeks, and meanwhile it is of vital and para- 
mount importance that as large a number of men as possible 
should press forward to enlist so that the men's training may be 
complete when they are required for the field. I would urge all 
employers to help in this matter, by releasing all men qualified 
for service with the Colours and replacing them by men of unre- 
cruitable age, or by women, as has already been found feasible in 
so many cases. An acknowledgment is assuredly due to those 
patriotic employers who have not merely permitted but actively 
encouraged their men to enlist, and have helped the families of 
those who have joined the Colours. 

When the registration becomes operative I feel sure that the 
Corporation of the City of London will not be content with its 
earlier efforts, intensely valuable as they have been, but will use 
its great facilities to set an example of canvassing for the cause 
This canvass should be addressed with stern emphasis to such 
impatriotic employers as, according to returns, have restrained 
their men from enlisting. 

What the numbers required are likely to be it is clearly 



THE LORD KTTCITENER IMEMORTAL BOOK 

inexpedient to shout nbroad. Onr eonstant refusal to publish 
either these or any other fiijures likely to prove useful to the enemy 
needs neither explanation nor apolopry. It is often urfrod that if 
more information were piven as to the work and whereabouts of 
various units reeruitinsf would be stroncfly stimulated. But this is 
the preeise information whieh would be of the greatest value to 
the enemy, and it is agrreeable to note that a German Prince in 
hiorh eommand ruefully reeorded the other day his complete 
ignorance as to our New Armies. 

But one set of fiirures, available for everybody, and indicating 
with sufficient particularity the needs of our forces in the field, is 
supplied by the casualty lists. With regard to these lists, how- 
ever, serious and sad as they necessarily are, let two points be 
borne in mind. First, that a very large percentage of the 
casualties represents comparatively slight hurts, the sufferers 
from which in time return to the front ; and, secondly, that, if 
the figures do seem to run very high, the magnitude of the opera- 
tions is thereby suggested. Indeed, these casualty lists, whose 
great length may now and again induce undue depression of 
spirits, are an instructive indication of the huge extent of the 
operations undertaken now reached by the British forces in the 
field. 

There are two classes of men to whom my appeal must be 
addressed — 

(1) those for whom it is claimed that they are indispensable, 
whether for work directly associated with our military forces, or 
for other purposes, public or private ; and 

(2) those to whom has been applied the ugly name of 
" shirkers." 

As regards the former the question must be searchingly 
driven home whether their duties, however responsible and how- 
ever technical, cannot in this time of stress be adequately carried 
out by men unfit for active military service or by women — and 
here I cannot refrain from a tribute of grateful recognition to the 
large number of women, drawn from every class and phase 
of life, who have come forward and placed their services unre- 
servedly at their country's disposal. The harvest, of course, is 
looming large in many minds. It is possible that many men 
engaged in agriculture have so far not come forward owing to their 
harvest duties. This may be a good reason at the moment, but 
can only be accepted if they notify their names at once as cer- 



GUILDHALL, JULY 9, 1915 

tain recruits on the very day alter the harvest has been carried. 
Also the question of the private employment of recruitable men 
for any sort of domestic service is an acute one, which must be 
gravely and unselhshly considered by master and man alike. 

There ha, been much said about " slackers " — people, that 
is to say, who are doing literahy nothing to help the country, 
Let us by all means avoid over-statement in this matter. Let us 
make every allowance for the very considerable number of men, 
over and above those who are directly rendering their country 
genuine service, who are engaged indirectly in patriotic work, or 
are occupied in really good and necessary work at home. Pro- 
bably the residuum of absolute " do-nothmgs " is relatively 
smaU, or at least smaller than is commonly supposed. At any 
rate it is not of those that I am speaking for the moment. I am 
anxious specially to address myself to the large class drawn from 
the category ol those who devote themselves to more or less 
patriotic objects or to quite good and useful work of one kind or 
another. I want each one of those to put this question to himself 
seriously and candidly, " Have I a real reason for not joining the 
Army, or is that which I put before myself as a reason, after all, 
only an excuse ? " 

Excuses are often very plausible and very arguable, and 
seem quite good until we examine them in the light of duty before 
the tribunal of our conscience. To take only a single instance. 
Are there not many Special Constables who, being of recruitable 
age, are really qualilied to undertake the higher service which is 
open to them. Perhaps the favourite excuse for neglecting to 
join the Colours is one which appears in various forms — " 1 am 
ready to go when I am fetched " ; "I suppose they will let me 
know when they want me " ; "I don't see why 1 should join 
while so many others remain behind " ; " To be fair, let us all be 
asked to join together " ; " After all, if the country only entreats 
and does not command us to enlist, does not that prove that it is 
not a duty to go, that only those need go who choose ? " 

Granted that legally you need only go if you choose, is it not 
morally '' up to you " to choose to go ? if you are only ready 
to go when you are fetched, where is the merit of that ? Where 
is the patriotism of it ? Are you only going to do your duty 
when the law says you must ? Does the call to duty lind no 
response in you until reinforced, let us rather say superseded, 
by the call of compulsion ? 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

It is not for mc to tell you your duty ; that is a matter for 
your conseience. But make up your minds, and do so quickly. 
Don't delay to take your decision and, having taken it, 
to act upon it at once. Be honest with yourself. Be certain 
that your so-called reason is not a selfish excuse. Be sure that 
hereafter, when you look back upon to-day and its call to duty, 
j'ou do not have cause, perhaps bitter cause, to confess to your 
conscience that you shirked your duty to your country and 
sheltered yourself under a mere excuse. 

It has been well said that in every man's life there is one 
supreme hour towards which ail earlier experience moves and 
from which all future results may be reckoned. For every indi- 
vidual Briton, as well as for our national existence, that solemn 
hour is now striking. Let us take heed to the great opportunity 
it offers and which most assuredly we must grasp now and at 
once — or never. Let each man of us see that we spare nothing, 
shirk nothing, shrink from nothing, if only we may lend our full 
weight to the impetus which shall carry to victory the cause of 
our honour and of our freedom. 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON THE 

SITUATION IN SEPTEMBER, 19 15 
IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, SEPTEMBER 15, 1915 



My Lords, during the latter part of the sittings of Parliament 
prior to the adjournment for the recess I did not think it necessary 
to address your Lordships, as current events were fully reported 
from time to time and no defined military situation presented 
itself which seemed to call for special comment from me. For 
the last few months the front held by the Allies in the West has 
been practically unchanged. This does not mean that there has 
been any relaxation of active work on the part of the forces in 
the field, for the continuous local fighting that has taken place all 
along the line has called for the display of incessant vigilance. 
Meanwhile our positions have been more strengthened, not only 
by a careful elaboration of the system of the trench fortifications 
that already existed, but also by a large increase in the number 
of heavy guns which have been placed along our lines. The 
Germans have recently on several occasions used gas and liquid 
fire, and have bombarded our lines with asphyxiating shells, but 
these forms of attack, lacking as they now do the element of 
surprise, have failed in their object and lost much of their offensive 
value owing to the steps taken by us to counteract the effect of 
these pernicious methods employed by the enemy. 

As the new Armies became trained and ready to take the 
field considerable reinforcements have been sent out to join Sir 
John French's command, and your Lordships will be glad to 
hear his opinion of these troops communicated to me. He 
writes : 

" The units appear to be thoroughly well officered and 

commanded. The equipment is in good order and efficient. 

Several units of artillery have been tested behind the firing 

line in the trenches, and I hear very good reports of them. 

Their shooting has been (extremely good, and they are quite 

fit to take their place in the Line." 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL ROOK 

These new divisions have now had the opportunity of acquiring 
by experience of actual warfare tliat portion of tiie necessary 
training of a soldier which it was impossible to give them in this 
country, and which, once acquired, will enable them effectively 
to take their place in line with the rest of the British Army. 
Willi these additional reinforcements, amounting to eleven 
Divisions, Sir John French has been able to extend his lines and 
take over from the French approximately seventeen miles of 
additional front. 

Throughout the summer months the French have fully held 
their own along their extended line of front, and in some places, 
notably near Arras and in Alsace, they have made substantial 
progress. In the struggle around Arras in early June they 
captured the whole of tlie heights of Notre Dame de Lorctte as 
well as a number of strongly fortified villages around this high 
ground, thereby securing an area of great tactical importance in 
view of future operations. In Alsace a number of dominating 
eminences have been wrested from the enemy, and have been 
subsequently held in face of formidable counter-attacks. One 
particularly commanding summit, which overlooks the left bank 
of the Rhine in this quarter and which had been the scene of 
continuous encounters for many months, has, after changing 
hands many times, rested finally in the possession of our Allies. 
The French trenches along the entire front have been developed 
and strengthened, and they now everywhere present a network 
of almost impregnable fortifications. Of this I have been able 
to satisfy myself during a visit which I was lately able to pay to 
our Allies at the invitation of General Joffre, when I was pro- 
foundly impressed with the high state of efficiency and the 
morale exhibited by the French Army. It was evident that 
officers and men recognised that the only possible termination to 
the war is to inflict on the enemy a thorough defeat, and that 
their resolution to do this was never firmer or more intense. Our 
Allies' aircraft have been particularly active. They have carried 
out numerous effective raids on a large scale, penetrating far into 
hostile territory. 

Turning to the Eastern theatre, the enemy, taking advantage 
of their central position, since early in June, have been employing 
a very large proportion of their forces in strenuous efforts to 
crush our Russian Ally. In the prosecution of these operations, 
which we have all closely followed, the Germans, in addition to 



HOUSE OF LORDS, SEPTEMBER 15, 1915 

their great numerical superiority, developed vastly preponderat- 
ing artillery, which enabled them to force the Russians from 
their defences. The German objective was evidently to destroy 
the Russian Army as a force in being, and thus to set free large 
nunibers of their troops for action elsewhere, but, as in the case 
of many other plans arranged by the German Staff during this 
war, there has been a signal failure to carry out the oricrinal 
intentions. 

In the history of this war few episodes will stand out more 
prominently or more creditably than the masterly manner in 
which the Russian forces, distributed along a line of some 750 
miles, have been handled while facing the violent assaults of an 
enemy greatly superior, not only in numbers, but especially in 
guns and munitions. The success of this great rearguard action 
has been rendered possible by the really splendid fighting qualities 
of the Russian soldier, who, in every case where actual contact 
has taken place, has shown himself infinitely superior to his 
adversary. It is these fighting qualities of the men of the 
Russian Army which have empowered her able Generals and 
competent Staff to carry out the immensely difficult operations 
of a retirement of the whole line over some 100 to 200 miles, 
without allowing the enemy to break through at any point, or, 
by surrounding their forces, to bring about a tactical position 
which might have involved a surrender of a considerable portion 
of the Russian Army. 

Thus we see the Russian Army remaining to-day intact as a 
fighting force. It has doubtless suffered severely by the hard 
fighting to which it has been subjected during recent months, but 
the German forces have also had to pay a heavy toll for their 
advance into Russia, and who will venture to say, until the present 
grips are relaxed, which of the Armies has suffered the more ? 
It must not be forgotten that Russia, witli her vast territory, has 
always been able ultimately to envelop and annihilate the largest 
invading Armies. In this she is certainly no less capable to-day 
than she was a century ago. 

As regards the net result, all that the Germans can place to 
their credit is that, at enormous sacrifice, they have captured 
certain fortresses. But our recent experience shows that the 
best fortifications and practically the only ones that can effec- 
tively resist the new machinery of war, are those which can be 
quickly dug deep in the soil. Such trenches to-day form better 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

defences tluin most of the carefully fortified places of which 
engineers until lately were so proud. The Germans appear 
almost to liave shot their bolt. Their advance into Russia, 
which at one time was carried out at an average daily rate of 
approximately five miles, has now diminished to less than one 
mile a day, and we see the forces which they boastingly described 
as tlefeatcd and broken troops flying before them still doggedly 
and pluckily fighting along the whole line, and in some places, 
indeed, turnins on the jaded invaders of their territorv and 
inflicting heavy losses upon them. The Russian Army, far from 
falling out of the fighting lists, as Germany fondly hoped would 
be the case, is still a powerful and undefeated unit, and the 
determination and confidence of the troops, fortified by an 
increasing supply of munitions, have only risen in proportion to 
the strain which has been imposed upon them. 

In this momentous hour of stress his Imperial Majesty the 
Tsar has taken executive command of his Armies in the field. 
The enthusiasm created by this step will serve to concentrate 
all the energies of his officers and men on driving back the 
invaders, and preventing them from reaching any vital portion 
of the Empire. To sum up, we may fairly say that while the 
Germans have prevailed by sheer weight of guns and at immense 
cost to themselves in forcing back the Russian front, nothing 
but barren territory and evacuated fortresses have been gained ; 
thus their strategy has clearly failed, and the victories they 
claim may only prove, as military history has so often demon- 
strated, to be defeats in disguise. 

Towards the end of May Italy ranged herself alongside 
the Allies and commenced active hostilities. By a series of rapid 
and brilliant infantry operations their Army advanced and 
occupied positions beyond their frontiers, thus obtaining control 
of all the principal passes in the Carnic Alps and on the Trentino 
frontier. The geographical and strategical advantages pre- 
viously possessed by the enemy were thus neutralised and the 
main Italian advance on many very strong positions could be 
carried out on their Eastern front extending along the whole 
valley of the Isonzo as far as the sea. The great difficulties 
caused by heavy floods and inundations were overcome by suc- 
cessful bridging operations of an extensive nature. The occu- 
pation of Monte Nero in this theatre was a most brilliant achieve- 
ment, carried out by the Alpine troops with their well-known 



HOUSE OF LORDS. SEPTEMBER 15, 1915 

skill and daring. The achievements of the Italian Artillery 
have been truly remarkable, and the manner in which heavy 
pieces have been hauled into almost inaccessible positions on 
lofty mountain peaks and in spite of great difficulties evokes 
universal admiration. Under the inspiring leadership of their 
King, assisted by General Cadorna, the Italian Army now 
occupies strategic positions of first-rate importance ; the gallant 
conduct of the Infantry of the line in action impressed upon their 
enemies the great military value of the Italian Army, while the 
bold feats of the Alpine troops and the Bersaglieri when scaling 
the rugged mountain sides were a marvellous example of 
successful enterprise. 

On the Gallipoli Peninsula operations were carried on 
during June against the Turkish position. Several Turkish 
trenches were captured, and our own lines were appreciably 
advanced and our positions consolidated. Considerable rein- 
forcements having arrived, a surprise landing on a large scale 
at Suvla Bay was successfully accomplished on August 6th 
without any serious opposition. At the same time an attack 
was launched by the Australian and New Zealand Corps from 
the Anzac position, and a strong offensive was delivered from 
Cape Hcllcs in the direction of Krithia. In this latter action 
the French troops played a prominent part and showed to high 
advantage their usual gallantry and fine fighting qualities. The 
attack from Anzac, after a scries of hotly-contested actions, 
was carried to the summit of Sari Bair and Chunuk Bair, which 
are the dominating positions in this area. 

The arrival of the transports and the disembarkation of 
the troops in Suvla Bay were designed to enable the troops to 
support this attack. Unfortunately, however, the advance 
from Suvla was not developed quickly enough, and the movement 
forward was brought to a standstill after an advance of about 
two and a-half miles. The result was that the troops from 
Anzac were unable to retain their position on the crest of the 
hills, and, after being repeatedly counter-attacked, they were 
ordered to withdraw to positions lower down. These positions, 
however, have been effectively consolidated, and now, joining 
with the line occupied by the Suvla Bay force, form a connected 
front of more than twelve miles. From the latter position a 
further attack on the Turkish entrenchments was delivered on 
the 21st, but after several hours of sharp fighting it was not 

N2 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

found possible to gain the sunmiit of the hills occupied by the 
enemy, and, the intervening space being unsuitable for defence, 
the troops were withdrawn to their original position. Since 
then comparative quiet has prevailed and a much-needed rest 
has been given to our troops. In the course of these operations 
the gallantry and resourcefulness of the Australian and New 
Zealand troops have frequently formed a subject for eulogy in 
Sir Ian Hamilton's reports. General Birdwood and his staff 
have greatly distinguished themselves both in planning and 
conducting the operations of the Australian and New Zealand 
Corps, whose activities have been marked by constant success. 
Their determination to overcome apparently insuperable difficul- 
ties has been no less admirable than their courage in hand-to- 
hand fighting with the enemy. 

It is not easy to appreciate at their full value the enormous 
difficulties which have attended the operations in the Dar- 
danelles or the fine temper with which our troops have met 
them. There is now abundant evidence of a process of demorali- 
sation having set in among the German-led — or rather German- 
driven — Turks, due, no doubt, to their extremely heavy losses, 
and to the progressive failure of their resources. It is only fair 
to acknowledge that, judged from a humane point of view, the 
methods of warfare pursued by the Turks are vastly superior 
to those which have disgraced their German masters. Through- 
out, the co-operation of the Fleet has been intensely valuable, 
and the concerted action between the sister Services has been 
in every way, and in the highest degree, satisfactory. 

In Mesopotamia the troops on the Euphrates having been 
reinforced, the Turks were attacked and expelled from their 
entrenched positions barring the way to Nasirieh. A second 
position to which they retired was also carried. The enemy's 
resistance there terminated, and Nasirieh was occupied by our 
troops. In these operations the enemy lost the whole of their 
artillery besides large quantities of stores, munitions, and other 
war material. A few days later a reconnaissance showed that 
the Euphrates was free of the enemy for a distance of nearly 
sixty miles. Since this victory there has been no further fighting 
on the Euphrates, Tigris, or Karun rivers. Climatic conditions 
in this theatre of war have rendered the operations extremely 
arduous. The heat has been intense ; swamps and marshes 
have rendered the country almost impassable ; and the highly 



HOUSE OF LORDS, SEPTEMBER 15, 1915 

successful issue of the expedition is due to the consummate 
gallantry and dogged determination of the officers and men of 
the force engaged. 

General Botha has carried the operations in South Africa 
to a decisive and victorious end. After the seizure of Windhoek 
a flying force was concentrated on Karibib to clear the country 
on both sides of the railway, and, if possible, to surround the 
Germans who had fallen back to Otavi. This force occupied 
Otavi on July 1st, and meanwhile General Britz, who had marched 
with a force by a long detour through Otio, reached the eastern 
extremity of Lake Etosha, and the enemy, finding themselves 
completely enveloped and their retreat cut off both east and west, 
had no alternative but to surrender. On July 9th 204 German 
officers and 3,293 men fell into General Botha's hands— a fitting 
conclusion to a brief and brilliant campaign. 

In East Africa on June 23rd a successful attack was made 
on the German port of Bukoba, on Lake Victoria Nyanza, when 
the fort, wireless installation, and shipping were destroyed, 
and on July 6th and 11th attacks were carried out by the Navy 
on the Konigsberg, which had taken refuge up a creek with the 
result that she was completely wrecked. Several raids took 
place on the Uganda Railway, but the damage done has been 
trifling. Our patrols have shown considerable enterprise in 
carrying out reconnaissances all along the frontier, and various 
successful encounters have been reported. 

As I have informed your Lordships, some of the new Armies 
we have prepared and equipped for the war are already in the 
field, and others will quickly follow them on service abroad. 
The response of tlie country to calls for recruits to form these 
Armies has been little short of marvellous, but it must be borne 
in mind that the provision of men to maintain the forces in the 
field depends in great degree on a large and continuance supply 
of recruits. The provision to keep up their strength during 
1916 has caused us anxious thought, which has been accen- 
tuated and rendered more pressing by the recent falling off in 
the numbers coming forward to enlist, although every effort has 
been made to obtain our requirements under the present system. 
I am sure we all fully realise that the strength of the Armies 
we are sending out to fight must be fully maintained to the very 
end. To fulfil this purpose we shall require a large addition 
to the numbers of recruits joining, and the problem of how to 



THE LOKD KTTCIIENKR MEINIORIAE BOOK 

secure an adequate supply of nun, and thus to ensure the field 
foree heintr kept up to full strenoth, is enoacrinfr cnu' elose attention, 
an(] Mill, I hope, very soon reeeive a praelieal solution. 

The returns of the Registration Aet whieh will be shortly 
available will, no doubt, trive us a basis on whieh to calculate 
the resources of the country, and to deterniine the numbers 
that will be available for the Army after providing for the 
necessary services of the country, as well as those of our munition 
works. Whatever decision may be arrived at in the full light 
of the facts before us must undoubtedly be founded on the 
military requirements for the prosecution of the war and the 
protection of our shores, and will be the result of an impartial 
inquiry as to how we can most worthily fulfil our national 
obligations. Although there has been a falling off in the number 
of recruits, I do not draw from this fact any conclusion un- 
favourable to the resolution and spirit of the country ; on the 
contrary, I think now — as I have always thought — that the 
manner in which all classes have responded to the call of 
patriotism is magnificent, and I do not for one instant doubt 
that whatever sacrifices may prove to be necessary to bring 
this gigantic war to a successful conclusion will be cheerfully 
undertaken by our people. 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON 

MILITARY SERVICE 

IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, JANUARY 5, 1916 

My Lords, seventeen months ago I stated to your Lord- 
ships the broad principles of the mihtary steps which I considered 
necessary to meet the emergency of the war. The scheme for 
augmenting our forces then set on foot was based on a definite 
plan to secure, by successive increases to our mihtary strength, 
an Army commensurate with our power and responsibilities, 
with the proper complement of reserves and reinforcements 
necessary to keep up its effective strength in the field during the 
war. Further, we had to produce for the Army thus created 
the guns, ammunition, and military materiel requisite to maintain 
its fighting value. This scheme had to be developed under the 
system of voluntary military service existing in the country, and 
I must say that this system has given us results far greater than 
most of us would have dared to predict, and certainly beyond 
anything that our enemies contemplated. In the early stages 
of the war men responded to the call in almost embarrassing 
thousands, and until a few months ago maintained, by a steady 
flow of recruits, the supply of men we required in as large numbers 
as we could train and equip. 

The cadres of the large Army we now possess having been 
formed, it is necessary to keep it up to strength in the field by a 
constant supply of reserves replenishing the wastage of war. 
Recently, however, the numbers of voluntary recmits have 
ceased to ensure the full provision of necessary trained reserves. 
Every effort was made by Lord Derby's canvass to repair this 
deficiency, and, at the inception of the scheme, the Prime Minister, 
on behalf of the Government, gave a pledge in the House of 
Commons regarding the military service of unmarried men. It 
is now necessary to redeem that pledge in order to maintain the 
voluntary principle as regards the service of married men in the 
future. 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

So far wc hiivc- been able to provide for the largest increase 
of the Army ami its maintenance on a ])urely volimtary system, 
and I, personally, had always hoped that we should be able to 
finish the war suecessliilly without changing that system, which 
has done so well and which has given us such sjilendid material 
in the field as the soldiers now fighting in the different theatres 
of war. I do not consider that the change proposed should be 
regarded in the light of any derogation of the principle of volun- 
tary service in this country. It only affects, during the period 
of the war, one class of men, amongst whom there are undoubtedly 
a certain number who have but a poor idea of their duties as 
citizens and require some persuasion greater than appeal to bring 
them to the colours. 

Whilst there are in the class affected some such shirkers, 
there are no doubt many whose reasons for not joining will be 
found valid, and I am very far from wishing it to be thought that 
all those to whom the new proposals will apply can be described 
by the term I have used for some of them. Many of these men 
probably have conflicting calls upon them, and will be only too 
happy that the Government should resolve the doubts which 
they have been unable to decide for themselves. In making 
these remarks to your Lordships I speak only as a soldier, with 
a single eye to the successful conduct of the war. I feel sure 
everyone will agree when I say that the fullest and fairest trial 
has been given to the system which I found in existence, and of 
which I felt it my duty to make the best use. We are now 
asking Parliament to sanction a change, as it has been proved 
that, in the special circumstances of this utterly unprecedented 
struggle, the existing system without modification is not equal 
to maintaining the Army which is needed to secure victory. 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON THE 

SITUATION IN FEBRUARY, 1916 
IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, FEBRUARY 15, 1916 



My Lords, the opening of this new session of Parhament 
seems to offer a fitting opportunity for me to review very briefly 
the recent operations of war in the various theatres in which we 
and our Alhes have been engaged. The Austro-German attack 
on Russia, which was proceeding when I last addressed your 
Lordships on the progress of the war, having been brought to 
a standstill in September, the German Staff at once commenced 
to organise a campaign against Serbia. The object of this was 
to extend their influence over the Balkans and to establish a 
railway connection between themselves and their Ally, Turkey, 
on whom the presence of our forces in Gallipoli was having a 
decided effect, causing a great deficiency in both men and 
munitions, the latter of which they looked to Germany to supply. 
The French and ourselves were at this time bringing considerable 
pressure to bear on the Western Front. These operations cul- 
minated in the battles at Loos, in Champagne, as well as about 
Arras. Our offensive in these areas inflicted very heavy losses 
on the Germans and resulted in the capture of important positions 
by the Allied troops. The German counter-attacks failed to 
recover the ground which the enemy had been compelled to yield. 
Owing to this continuous offensive action on the Western 
Front, considerable German forces were withdrawn from the 
Russian frontier, where the pressure was sensibly relaxed, 
enabling Russia to obtain certain successes and to hold the 
enemy well in check. In order, however, to carry out the 
German agreement with Bulgaria, under which King Ferdinand 
pledged his country to abandon her neutrality and to co-operate 
with the Central Powers in an onslaught on her neighbour 
Serbia, the preconcerted movement against Serbia was pro- 



THE LORD KITCIIKNER MEMORIAL ROOK 

cecded with. In these operations the Austro-German forces 
which crossed the Daniibo on October 7th took a minor part, 
by holdinfT the dcfcndiiifr Serbian forces south of Belgrade, 
while the Bulgarians attacked them on their flank. To support 
Serbia, and to enable Greece to send troops to the assistance of 
Iier Ally under the Convention which existed between the two 
Balkan* States, the French and ourselves, on the invitation 
of the Greek Prime Minister, sent troops to Salonika, 
and entered the field against the Bulgarians in South 
Macedonia. The inadequate harbour accommodation and the 
bad railway communications through Greece and Serbia ham- 
pered the advance of our t/oops very considerably, and it was not 
until October 25th that a French force came into contact with 
the Bulgarians in the Strumnitza Valley. It was evident that 
the Serl)ian Army was not in a position to offer effective resistance 
to attack by superior forces in front and flank, and could not 
but be driven back upon Montenegro and Albania. The Austro- 
Germans and Bulgarians thus succeeded in securing the way 
for direct communication between the Central Powers and 
Constantinople, which w^as undoubtedly their principal objective 
in these operations. I may add, however, that, under the 
auspices of the French, large numbers of the Serbian Army are 
being reorganised and reconstituted as a fighting force in the 
island of Corfu. 

In France and Flanders, since the capture of Loos and the forward 
movement in Champagne, the Allied lines have remained practi- 
cally unchanged. Throughout the winter the morale of the French 
Army has been maintained at the same high level which marked 
it at the inception of the war, and it may certainly be said that 
the fighting qualities of our neighbouring Ally were never greater 
or more highly developed than at present. Although the Indian 
Division have been withdrawn from France and Flanders for 
service elsewhere, our forces in that theatre have been materially 
increased by no less than eight divisions of the New Army, and 
thus reinforced our troops, through the winter months, have 
been constantly carrying out active operations which have given 
no rest or respite to the enemy in front of them. 

The activities of the Italian Army were conspicuous in October 
and November during their advance on the Isonza, nor have 
their efforts since been relaxed, although the positions occupied 
by the enemy are so strong as to bar for the present the develop- 



HOUSE OF LORDS, FEBRUARY 15, 1916 

ment of the forward movement which the splendid courage of 
the ItaHan troops is sure eventually to push home. I had an 
opportunity last autumn myself of seeing the indomitable 
resourcefulness of the Italian Army operating in a terrain pre- 
senting the greatest difficulty. 

Notwithstanding the heavy blows and consequent losses 
which Russia suffered during the summer of 1915, and which 
would probably have overwhelmed any less tenacious and 
courageous people, her Army has been thoroughly reorganised 
and re-equipped, her armaments have been increased, and the 
spirit which pervades her forces is as high as at the outset of the 
campaign. The active co-operation of the Russian people in 
the manufacture of munitions of war exhibits very clearly the 
reality of their patriotism, and their determination to carry 
this life-and-death struggle, whatever its length, to a victorious 
conclusion. 

The Austro-Germans having cleared the path to Constanti- 
nople of all obstructions, the political situation in the Near 
East was thereby gravely affected. The Turkish Army, rein- 
forced by German supplies, was able to organise a movement of 
troops either against Egypt or to strengthen their forces in Meso- 
potamia, and at the same time were able to bring a far more 
powerful artillery attack to bear on our positions in GallipoH. 
It was therefore decided to withdraw our troops from the penin- 
sula to reinforce Salonika and Egypt. During the last week of 
December our positions at Anzac and Suvla were successfully 
evacuated with practically no loss. This military achievement 
has already been the subject of eulogy in both Houses of Par- 
liament, and was only surpassed by the later strategic with- 
drawal from Cape Helles. Although when on the spot I had 
formed the opinion that this withdrawal could be accomplished 
with less loss than had been originally anticipated, the method 
of its execution by the competent naval and military officers in 
charge exceeded my most sanguine expectations. The Franco- 
British Forces operating in Macedonia were gradually con- 
centrated in a strongly entrenched position surrounding the 
town of Salonika. Its hne of defence was completed and occupied 
before the end of the year, and, in order to emphasise the principle 
of unity amongst the Allies, the supreme command of the forces 
at Salonika, both British and French, was placed in the hands 
of the French Commander-in-Chief, General Sarrail. 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

It will ])e remembered that durinnr last winter an abortive 
attempt on tlie Suez Canal was easily brushed aside by a small 
British foree operatintr in that neighl)ourhood. But as a more 
serious attempt has been tlu'eatened by the Turks to invade 
Ejrypt from the Enst adequate preparations have been made to 
defeiul the Canal. The Tureo-German influence with the 
religious Chief, the Senussi, on the western flank of Egypt, has 
suei'eeded in indueing the Arabs of Cyrenaiea and Tripoli to 
assume a hostile attitude towards us in Egypt. The first 
attempts made by the tribes have resulted in complete failure 
aTid disaster to them, and though this movement in the western 
desert still causes a certain feeling of unrest, the admirable 
loyalty of the people of Egypt forms an effective barrier to any 
penetration by these raiders into the cultivated areas. 

In Mesopotamia our forces at the end of September, advancing 
up the river Tigris, defeated the Turks at Kut-el-Amara, and 
pushing on after various minor engagements, were at the begin- 
ning of November in a position threatening the city of Baghdad. 
The Turkish forces thus driven back had, however, received 
considerable reinforcements, and at the action of Ctesiphon, on 
November 22nd, showed themselves to be in such strength as 
greatly to outnumber our Expeditionary Force. A retirement 
from our advanced position, therefore, became necessary, and 
this was carried out under General Townshend's direction as 
far as Kut-el-Amara, a strategical point which he decided to 
hold until the arrival of fresh troops which w^ere being pushed 
up the river under the command of General Aylmer. General 
Aylmer with his forces drove back small parties of Turkish 
troops, and reached a point twenty-three miles below Kut-el- 
Amara where the Turks had entrenched themselves. The 
Turkish position was attacked on January 27th, but proved too 
strong to be forced, and General Aylmer, who has been joined 
by General Lake, is now awaiting further reinforcements before 
renewing his forward movement to effect a juncture with General 
Townshend's forces. The behaviour of the British and Indian 
troops in Mesopotamia has been worthy of the traditions of our 
Army, and the operations, which have been hampered by the 
worst possible wxather, will, it is hoped, before long reach a 
satisfactory stage. General Townshend has sufficient supplies 
at his disposal to maintain his force for a considerable period. 
The operations in Mesopotamia, which have hitherto been con- 



HOUSE OF LORDS, FEBRUARY 15, 1916 

trolled from India, will now come under the direction of the War 
Office. 

In East Africa several small engagements have enabled us 
to extend our positions, and the Union Government, after their 
victorious campaign in South- West Africa, having offered 
troops for service in that country, General Smith-Dorrien was 
appointed to command the increased forces which it was pro- 
posed to employ there. Unhappily his health has prevented 
his retaining the command, which I am glad to say has been 
accepted by General Smuts, in whom we can have the utmost 
confidence in view of his varied military experience. In the 
Cameroons the combined operations undertaken by the French 
and British troops have brought that country entirely under the 
control of the Allies. In January Jaunde was occupied and the 
German garrisons were either captured or driven out of their 
colony. All resistance having now ceased and the enemy's 
levies having laid down their arms, the campaign in the 
Cameroons may be regarded as virtually concluded. It is 
greatly to the credit of General Dobell and General Aymerich, 
commanding the French forces, and the troops under their 
command, that this difficult country has been satisfactorily 
cleared of the enemy. 

At the end of the year an important change occurred in the 
highest commands of the British forces in the field. Sir John 
French, on whose shoulders had rested the heavy burden of 
seventeen months' ceaseless activity in the field, having relin- 
quished, at his own request, his post in France, was invited to 
assume command of the forces employed in this country, and to 
co-ordinate duties of first-rate importance which require the 
direction of a central authority. The country will feel that by 
his invaluable services he has placed us all under an obligation, 
and will rejoice at the honour conferred by the King which 
makes him a member of this House. Sir Douglas Haig has been 
entrusted with the task of conducting the operations of the 
British troops in the Western theatre of war, and his brilliant 
record and liigh soldierly reputation arc sufficient warrant for 
the confidence in his success which his countrymen and our 
Allies feel in him. 

I cannot omit to mention the important measure that has 
recently passed your Lordships' House enabling the country 
to call on the services of all single men of military age. We 



THE LOUD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

havo now sour- cxptTiencc of the working of the voluntary group 
systiin, and wo rcahsc liow siriously the numbers ininu'chately 
obtainable are affeeted by exein{)tions. I would })ay a tribute 
to tlie conscientious work of the Advisory Connnittees and 
Tribunals whieh have been set up to deal with a|)peals, and I 
am not without 1io}H' that when these appeals have been decided 
the antieii)ated numbers of men will be obtained. Time alone 
will show what increase the results of appeals will give us, but I 
trust on a future occasion to be in a position to reassure your 
Lordships as to the chances of our obtaining the numbers required. 
I would, however, seize this opportunity of again urging upon 
employers of labour that they should do their very best to 
release young men for service in the Army and replace them 
with older men, with women, and with men who for physical 
reasons have been invalided out of the Army. 

Li the future as in the past we shall have our dangers, our 
difficulties, and our anxieties in this great struggle, throughout 
which the splendid spirit of our troops at the Front and the 
calm determination of the people at home to support them to 
the utmost of their ability will enable us to look forward with 
complete confidence to a victorious issue which shall ensure 
peace for this and many succeeding generations 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON THE 

CIVILIAN ARMY'S PART 

IN THE GUILDHALL, MARCH 1, 1916 



If it be true, and it certainly is true, that this is a war of 
nations, then the whole nation is fighting, and we have two great 
armies, not only the Army m the field, but the other army 
consisting of the whole of the civilian population at home. 
As a representative of the Army in the field, I want to appeal on 
their behalf to the civilian army at home, for it is vital to the 
Army in the field that the civilian army at home should also 
strenuously play its part. The Army in the field could not last 
one single day without the efforts of the civilian population 
behind it. Our soldiers depend wholly on the civilian popu- 
lation for their food, their clothing, and the unlimited munitions 
and equipment that they must have if they are successfully to 
meet their enemies. Whether they can get all these vital things 
in sufficient quantities, and continue to do so, depends absolutely 
and entirely upon whether every man and woman at home 
shows the utmost economy in production, and the utmost 
economy in consumption. If men or women are not producing 
all they can by their labour or skill, or are consuming either 
in food or clothes, or anything else more than they need, they 
are making it so much the more difficult to meet the needs of 
our soldiers and our Allies, and therefore they are doing some- 
thing to help our enemies to win just as much as a soldier who 
refuses to do his utmost on the field of battle. 

It is not only money that our Armies require. We want 
just as many men as we can get as soldiers. Therefore we are 
bound to take all the men that can possibly be spared, whether 
from industry, agriculture, or commerce. We want an unceasing 
supply of guns and shells, rifles and cartridges, and all other 
munitions of war. We want very large supplies of other military 
requirements, such as food, clothing, and transport. We want 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

to provick' as much nuinitions, supplies, aud equipment as pos- 
sible for tiie use of our Allies. 

The question is. How can we do all these things at the same 
time ? Hi)W can we take millions of men from our workshops, 
farms, hanks, and olhces and yet provide not only all the things that 
the whole nation consumes imder peace conditions, but also the 
vast mass of war material which now requires millions of men 
and women for its production ? Now that our working popula- 
tion is so much smaller owing to the millions of soldiers in the field 
how can that smaller population produce vastly more ? If those 
left behind are going to work only as hard as they worked before, 
and each man and woman is to produce only as much as before, 
and if all the civilian population are going to consume as much as 
they did before, then our problem will be insoluble. If everyone 
is to go on living as if times were normal, either we shall be 
unable to get all the men we require as soldiers, or we shall be 
miable to produce enough for our civilian population as well as 
what our Armies must imperatively have in order to carry 
through their tremendous task. 

Hitherto, finding that we could not produce nearly enough 
for the wants of our Army and our Allies, and for our own needs, 
we have filled up the gap by vast importations from foreign 
countries. It is essential for the strength of our financial system, 
and for the maintenance of our foreign exchanges, that we 
should rely much more upon ourselves. We cannot possibly 
produce enough to meet all our ordinary peace-time requirements 
as w^ll as our military needs. Therefore, either the civilian 
population must go short of many things to which it is accus- 
tomed in time of peace, or our armies must go short of munitions 
and other things indispensable to them. Which is it to be ? 
Are the civilians at home prepared to let their brothers and 
friends in the trenches sacrifice their lives and endure hardships 
of all kinds, and yet themselves not be ready to undergo the small 
sacrifices in the way of harder work, increased effort, and increased 
economy which alone can with certainty provide our armies with 
all that they require until the end of the war ? 

First, if we employ less labour in meeting the wants of the 
civilian population then we can release more men for the fighting 
forces. Secondly, if we import less for consumption by the civil 
population then we lessen the difficulties of sea transport. Those 
difficulties as you. know are very great at present. Thirdly, by 



MARCH 1, 1916 

importing less for the civilian population we also relieve the 
serious congestion at our docks in this country. Fourthly, by 
carrying less for the civilian population we also relieve the con- 
gestion on our railways. Fifthly, by a general reduction in the 
consumption of commodities by the civilian population we do 
much to limit the increase in the cost of living. Lastly, by 
consuming less ourselves we set free labour and capital to be 
employed in making what our own armies and those of our Allies 
need. Therefore the mihtary needs of this country urgently 
demand the strictest economy on the part of all citizens of this 
country. 

Let those who are making large profits and receiving large 
wages, and are therefore tempted to extravagance, remind them- 
selves that such profits and such wages are only made possible 
by the sacrifices of our Navy and Army, and that money made 
at such a cost should be used or invested for the nation's benefit 
and not spent in personal indulgence. Economy in everything 
is desirable, and particularly of course in such articles as coal, 
food stuffs, intoxicating liquors, petrol and oils, tea and coffee, 
tobacco, and clothing of all kinds, especially woollen articles. 

Economy is only one side of the picture. Both economy and 
productive energy are required of all workers, and both are of 
equal importance. If every man and woman work their hardest 
to produce everything the Army needs, then they are doing 
their bit. And if every man and woman receiving higher wages 
owing to the war or enjoying an independent income save all 
they possibly can and invest it in Government securities they are 
equally doing their bit. But if they do not work their hardest 
and do not save as much as they can, so far from contributing 
to the national cause, they are in fact directly injuring it, and 
also are hindering their friends and relations in the trenches. 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON 

RECRUITING 
IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, MARCH 15, 19] 6 



My Lords, I am glad that my noble friend Lord Derby, who 
has given me so much valuable assistance in the Recruiting De- 
partment of the War Office and has worked so whole-heartedly for 
the good of the Army, has been able to explain in detail to your 
Lordships what has been going on in his Department. Your 
Lordships will remember that last month I sounded a note of 
warning as to whether we should obtain the number of men from 
the groups and classes that we require for the Army, and I then 
asked all employers of labour to assist us by releasing young men 
from their employment. Since then we have been following the 
output from the group and class system, and I regret to say that 
my fears have been realised during the last month. The original 
estimate of our requirements for April necessitated the calling 
up of some of the younger married attested groups, and the 
deficiences of March will require the calling up of more groups 
earlier than we Ii<nd hoped would have been necessary. 

The production and maintenance of an Army of the magni- 
tude we now possess has naturally revolutionised the whole 
industrial conditions in the country, and the tribunals have 
found it necessary to grant temporary exemptions to prevent 
the disorganisation of industry so as to give time to employers 
to provide substitutes either from men incapable of military 
service or from women. These time exemptions have naturally 
delayed our obtaining many men whom we shall eventually get. 
But, as your Lordships will agree, this does not help us in pro- 
viding for our immediate needs. In addition to this delay in 
obtaining men there are unfortunately many men of those who 
have voluntarily attested, as well as of those who come under the 
Military Service Act, who arc for the present evading^ military 

•2 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

service in the various manners described by my noble friend 
My noble friend has sugti^ested various means by which the ser- 
vices of these men may be obtained, and the country may rest 
assured that I siiall support him in his efforts, and that I endorse 
his statement that he has done and is doing all that is possible 
to obtain these men, whom I have not the slightest doubt we 
shall eventually bring in. But this will require time. 

Meanwhile we need men whom we can train to meet the 
calculated requirements of the war. Married men who have 
attested should realise that, even if we had obtained all the single 
men that it was anticipated we should secure from the group 
system and the JMilitary Service Act, we should still require a 
large number of married men within the next few weeks. 
Men have to be trained. The mere fact that a man comes up on 
a certain date does not mean that he is at once available. It 
requires many weeks to make him efficient to take the field. I 
would therefore earnestly appeal to the married men who have 
attested to place their patriotism and the national cause before 
any personal considerations and to come forward without hesita- 
tion and join the ranks. The position is an anxious one owing 
to the disappointing numbers joining for general service. As I 
have said, we are taking every step we possibly can to secure the 
single men, and we shall not rest in our endeavours until we have 
secured all those single men who cannot rightly be said to be 
indispensable in the national interest in their employment. 



LORD KITCHENER'S SPEECH ON THE 

MILITARY SERVICE BILL 

IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, MAY 23, 1916 



My Lords, on this the final stage of the Bill it may be appro- 
priate for me to say that its smooth and rapid passage through 
your Lordships' House will prove most beneficial to the Army, 
As soon as the measure has received the Royal Assent we shall be 
able to regulate the flow of recruits to the Colours, and get rid 
altogether of those sudden fluctuations in recruiting which were 
so prejudicial alike to military and industrial interests. Further 
— and I emphasise the point — the process of recruiting will now 
be carried out with the minimum possible inconvenience to the 
men themselves. 

The idea has apparently been prevalent in certain quarters 
that for some wholly inexplicable motive the military authorities 
are prone to crowd and even to congest the ranks with men 
physically unfit to bear arms. No suggestion could be wider 
of the truth. Under the provisions of this Bill we can call up 
men for medical re-examination ; but this power will be used 
not to absorb the physically unfit, but to secure the physically 
efi^icient. Some of these men are undoubtedly sheltering them- 
selves behind certificates acquired in an unsatisfactory way or 
under a temporary condition of ill-health. The terms of this 
Bill will enable us to make use of the men who were discarded 
on account of physical disability for active service but who are 
suitable for home service, clerical work, and the like. In a word, 
the Bill, in purport and in effect, makes directly and unmistakably 
for equality of sacrifice in the national cause. The Army Council 
will, for their part, use every endeavour to render it as easy as 
possible for the men to be called up. We shall keep the groups 
open for voluntary attestation until the appointed date. 

There is no doubt that the Armies in the field will welcome 
this measure with intense satisfaction. Generals and Staffs will 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

be able to count with monil certainty on their receiving the 
necessary drafts and reinforcements, and the rank and file will be 
encouraged by tlie thought tliat all their countrymen at home are 
prepared to support them to the utmost of their power. Our 
Allies also will, I believe, recognise in our acceptance of obligations 
which are imdoubtedly such a marked departure from our 
national traditions that this country is prepared to throw into the 
scale without reserve the whole of our resources against the 
conmion foe. The conviction deeply and universally felt that we 
have engaged in a just war and the patriotism of our people gave 
us, under the voluntary system, a far larger Army than we could 
ever have contemplated. This Bill will enable us to maintain its 
numbers in a manner and to a degree not hitherto possible, and 
thus take our fair and full share in the great conflict on the issue 
of which our position as a nation and the future of our race 
depend. 



LORD KITCHENER S SPEECH ON THE 
VOLUNTEER TRAINING CORPS 

IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS, MAY 30, 1916 

My Lords, the Volunteer Training Corps, as your Lordships 
are aware, owe their existence to the pubhe-spirited efforts of Lord 
Desborough and others, who early in the war saw the valuable 
use which could be made of the patriotism of the many men who 
from age or private circumstances were prevented from joining 
the Armies then being formed. These efforts were recognised in 
a letter from the War Office in November, 1914, giving the new 
organisation recognition and encouragement. The War Office 
were not, however, in a position to promise any support in money 
or in kind from public sources, and care was taken in the letter I 
have mentioned to make this clear. In this letter it was stated 
that no arms, ammunition, or clothing would be supplied from 
public sources, nor would financial assistance be given. 

Subsequently, at the commencement of this year, the 
Government went a step further and brought the Volunteer 
Training Corps under the Volunteer Act of 1863. Regulations 
giving effect to this step were then framed by which certain 
grants of money were made to assist the Corps in meeting the 
expenses of travelling and food for members who were called upon 
to perform certain services in which they could be of assistance 
to the Army. The Regulations also promised non-effective 
grants for men killed or incapacitated while performing services of 
this kind. It was, however, made clear that beyond these grants 
no assistance could be provided. Your Lordships will realise how 
essential it was for the War Office to assume this attitude. The 
expenditure on the Army is very great. We cannot look without 
misgiving at any increase such as would be initiated, for example, 
by the payment of a capitation grant for these Volunteers. We 
must also look at present with misgiving at any demands for 
arms, equipment, and clothing, owing to the difficulties of supply. 
The utmost that we could see our way to do would be to endeavour 
to find part-worn equipment and arms with which to fit out 
Volunteers who may be employed in the partial relief of Regular 
troops on military duties, such as that of guards, etc. That is 
the situation at present. 

We can see no way of giving further pecuniary assistance 
except at the expense of the Army, which would have to be 
reduced proportionately. The Volunteers are all business men 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

and cannot undertake continuous military duties. They can, 
however, do work which is of importance, and this is being 
undertaken by rosters of members, from which men can be 
found for certain puard services. For this they receive pay 
imder the Regulations. The Government have endeavoured to 
find more work for them which they can do under this system, 
but it is not an easy task, having regard to the limitations 
imposed upon members by the necessary calls made by their 
private businesses and other circumstances. The noble Lord 
behind me (Lord Charnwood) invites the Government to express 
a desire to use largely increased numbers, even to the extent 
of getting all available men to join the Volunteer Corps. I am 
afraid we have not reached that stage yet. We must find the 
work for them to do. Then we must look at the expense that 
would thereby be incurred, which, I can assure the noble Lord, 
is a very serious consideration owing to our enormous expendi- 
ture. In describing the work which he asks the Government 
to find for the Volunteers the noble Lord spoke of " work impor- 
tant for the successful prosecution of the war." He means, I 
think, work of a military or semi-military nature. But is it 
not a fact that in the present conditions the conduct of the 
civil businesses of the country is also important for the success 
of the war ? May we not run some risk in encouraging the 
diversion from the businesses in which these men are engaged 
of energies which are available primarily for that work ? May 
not the country's interests suffer in that way ? I suggest that 
we must show considerable caution in dealing with this question. 
The present is not the moment when we should embark on schemes 
involving new expenditure of large sums, which can only be provided 
out of Army money if corresponding reductions are carried out. 

At the same time do not let me be misunderstood. The 
Government recognise fully, and cannot speak too highly of, the 
work which the Volunteers have done and the spirit which 
they have always shown in offering their services to the country. 
The Volunteers have been most useful in meeting many emer- 
gencies, such as furnishing guards for munition factories, patrol- 
ling the coast, providing labour for digging trenches and other 
manual work, such as unloading trains. As I have said, they 
have set a fine example, and the country is both proud of and 
grateful to them ; and personally I welcome the presence in 
the country of a large body of disciplined men who might prove 
of great service in the case of sudden national emergency. 




LORD KITCHENER 

PhotOBraoh rcoroHucrd bv courloy of HHIr a Sonntlo.-*, Oxford 




LORD KITCHENIiR AUniVlNG AT A I.AUUUK 
CONl-ERENCE 

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LORD KITCHENER IN MUFTI IN WHITEHALL 

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LOKI> KITCIIENEH LEAVINO AKIEK A VISIT TO A MILITAKV HOSPITAL 

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LORD KITCHENER SHAKING HANDS ^VITH THE FRENCH COMMAN 1)EK-IN-CII lET AT THE DAIt I )ANEI,I.ES 

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LORU KITCHENEK IN THE Tlii;N( IIK^ 1)1 1.IN(; lll> V1>11 JU THE DAUUANELLES 

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MAJOR-GENERAL DAVIES POINTING OUT POSITIONS 

TO I.ORO KITCHENER, GENERAL BIRDWOOD AND 

GENERAL SIR JOHN MAXWELL 

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LORD KITCHENER AMONG THE RUINS OF A TURKISH 

FORTRESS. THE SHELLS LEFT BY THE ENEMY 

ARE SEEN ON THE LEFT 

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LORD KITCIIENEII ANU THE FUENf II COM M . i II II. F PASSING THROUGH THE FRENCH LINES AT 

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l.ulil. Klum.M.li I.MUAUKlMi 1 UK ATHENS ON UOAHl) II. .M. DlCslUOVKR " LAIOHKY 

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LOUD Kirciti;M.i< \VM.KiN(; ai.onc; tiii; hkacii at anzac on his uktuun fuom tiik riuiNG link 

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LORD KUCIIENKK AN1> SII{ WILLIAM KOIiKRTSON ARRIVING AT WESTMINSTKR ABIiKY ON ANZAC DAY 

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HKUUMl. I'AKK, CANlinUUin'. I.OHI) Ki ICHllNKK > C()rNlK\- K i .> 1 1 )l . N C 1 . 

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THE KING AUURESSIM; l.Oltli KlTCUKNr.R AND THIi 3RU KliSKRVl', BATTALION IRISH GUARDS AT 
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Tin. (^ri;i:N PHI>I:MIM. 1:I),\1.> or MIAMIUX K to MKN of TJII: IRISII guards. LORD KITCHENER 

IS AN INTERESTED SPECTATOR 

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LORD KITCIIKNKK ADDUKSSING THK IIOUSK OK I.OItUS I-OU TIIK LAST TIME 
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ROYAL MILITARY ACADKMY, WOOLWICH 

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I.OUI) KITCHENER ENTEUTAINING WOUNDED AT BROOME I'AIIK 

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LORD KITCHENKR LEAVING THE WAR OFFICE TO MEICT HIS HOUSE OF COMMONS CRITICS 
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lOlU) KITCIII;M:U AMJ I.IKUTIiNANT-COI.ONKI, IH/(;i;UAI.I) (lllS I'IHSONAI- mimtaky sixuktahy) 

IN WIIITKIIAI.I, 

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LORD KITCHENER IN HIS ROOM AT THE WAR OFFICE 

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1 Oi:i> KITCnENEU COMING ON BOAllD THE " IKON DLKK " FROM THE DESTROYER ON THE DAY HE 

WAS DROWNED 

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LORD KITCHKM K AND STAFF ABOUT TO LEAVE FOR THE HAMPSHIRE. 

JELLICOE ARE SEEN ON THE GANGWAY 

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LORD KITCHENER S DECORATIONS 

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THE LOST CHIEF. 

IN MEMORY OF FIELD-MARSHAL EARL KITCHENER, MAKER OF ARMIES. 



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THE OPCN-AIR MEMORIAL SERVICE HELD AT PORTS- 

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■J hi: aukivai. (ji tiii;ih majesties at st. i'ai i, s 
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SCENE INSIDE ST. PAUL'S 
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THE NEW LORD KITCHENER THE LATE LORD 

kitchener's elder BROTHER 

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LORD KITCHENER 

BY 

The Marquess of Lansdowne 

Viscount French 

The Prime Minister 

The Right Hon. A. Bonar Law, M.P. 

G. J. Wardle, M.P. 



From Speeches delivered in the 

House of Lords and the Hotise of Commons 

on June 20 and 21, 1916 



TRIBUTES 

The Marquess of Laxsdowne, K.G. 

Lord Kitchener's name will live in history above all else as 
that of a great soldier who was able by his personal influence to 
convert the modest Expeditionary Army which we had maintained 
to provide for the contingency of operations beyond these shores 
into a great host numbered not by tens or by hundreds of thousands, 
but by millions — the great host which is at this moment fighting 
the battle of liberty and good faith and upholding the honour 
of the Empire in a hundred battlefields all over the world. 
That was, indeed, a great triumph for the voluntary system, 
in which Lord Kitchener was a firm believer and which we 
know that he abandoned with reluctance only when it became 
clear that it would not give us all that sufficed for our national 
needs. The magnitude of his performance has been realised by 
our Allies, by our Dominions beyond the seas, and by the whole 
civilised world, and it is no exaggeration to say that what he 
did required a touch of the enchanter's wand which no one else 
could have wielded but Lord Kitchener himself. 

In this House we thought of him as one of ourselves. He 
was deeply convinced — he has told me so more than once — that 
he was no Parliamentarian, and preferred to leave it to others 
to debate the affairs of the Department which he administered. 
But some of us have, nevertheless, upon occasion been able to 
observe that he could, when necessary, display a very consider- 
able command of effective language, that in council lie was 
well able to make his own case, and I believe he has been known 



THE LORD KTTCHF.XER MEMORIAL BOOK 

to do so and not without success even when he was compelled 
to use a language not his ow7i. In t}iat connection I think we 
may bear in mind tliat one ol' the latest occasions on which he 
took part in public discussion was the occasion of that remark- 
able interview whicli took place between him and a number of 
Members of the House of Commons — an ordeal which anyone 
wlio has had to attempt it himself will say is a pretty severe 
ordeal for any public man. From that ordeal he emerged with 
marked success. In this House his intervention was rather 
rare, and yet amongst the impressions of the House of Lords 
which some of us will carry away and not forget, one of the 
most unforgettable is probably that of Lord Kitchener's com- 
manding figure as he stood at this table, not ashamed to rely 
upon the copious notes which he used to bring down with him 
when he was to make one of those businesslike statements to 
which your lordships listened with rapt attention, and every 
line and sentence of which were scanned anxiously and atten- 
tively out of doors. 

Of the manner of his death I cannot venture to say much. 
It is difficult to conceive a more impressive ending to a great 
and noble career. Whether it is the end which he would himself 
have desired I cannot take on myself to say. If any one of us 
had been asked what kind of an end we desired for his life, I 
suppose we should have said that we wished him to be spared 
to see the glorious conclusion of this great w^ar, to be spared 
when the war is over to take part in the solution of the many 
difficult problems which will present themselves for the considera- 
tion of our statesmen, and perhaps, after that, to a peaceful 
old age spent in that country home to w^hich he was so devotedly 
attached, and which, I am inclined to think, afforded him the 
only distraction which he allowed himself during the strenuous 
years of his life. But it was otherwise ordered. 

Some master of our language will one day describe appro- 
priately the departure of the gallant Field-Marshal, amidst the 
gloom and the fury of a northern tempest, on the errand which 
was to be his last. All that we can conjecture, and we do so 
with confidence, is that he met his end bravely when it came. 



VISCOUNT FRENCH 

Truly, it was a great and dignified exit from the stage on which 
he had played so prominent a part during the long years of his 
life. I ask your leave to bear witness in this House to the esteem 
in which we held Lord Kjtchener while he lived, to the regret 
with which we regard his untimely loss, and to the honour in 
which we held him. 

Viscount French, G.C.B., O.M. 

As Commander-in-Chief of the Army in France my relation 
with the late Secretary of State for War was constant, and I am 
anxious to place on record that no effort was ever spared by him 
to supply all my demands. 

I knew well the difficulties which lay in his way, not only 
in providing the necessary men and material for the Expe- 
ditionary Force in a war which was not of our seeking and which 
has increased to quite unexpected magnitude, but also in the 
immediate and colossal expansion which the military forces have 
necessarily undergone. Lord Kitchener faced these difiiculties 
with characteristic determination, and the evidence of the debt 
which the nation owes him is to be found in the magnificent 
armies which are now defending our interests all over the world. 

It would be idle to pretend that in the past two years I 
have always seen eye to eye with the great Field-Marshal who 
has been taken from us, but such divergence of opinion as 
occurred in no way interfered with the national interests nor 
did it ever shake my confidence in Lord Kitchener's will, power, 
and ability to meet the heavy demands I had to make upon 
him. Many noble lords in the House can speak with much 
greater eloquence and much greater authority of Lord Kitchener 
as a Cabinet Minister. Personally, I prefer to keep him always 
in my mind as the great and glorious soldier which I knew him 
to be. 

For nearly three years in the South African War I was 
closely associated with him and enjoyed his intimate friendship 
and confidence. As Commander of the Cavalry Division during 
the first part of that war, I shall never forget the help I derived 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

from his invaluable counsel and support when he was Chief of 
the Staff to Lord Roberts, but it was after he came to assume 
the Chief Command and I occupied a post of considerable 
responsibility under him that I learnt his value as a Commander 
in the held and a Under of men. He inspired us all with the 
utmost confidence, we relied implicitly upon him to lead us to 
victory, we knew we were assured of his utmost help and support 
in trouble and dilliculty, and that he would give us the fullest 
measure of credit in success. I am very fortunate in the pos- 
session of many of his private letters, and I could quote numerous 
examples of the truth of what I say. 

At that time and during subsequent years I became so 
impressed by his great qualities, and my estimate of him was 
so high, that when at the outbreak of the present war I had 
reason to believe that I had been selected for the Chief Command 
in the field, I went to Lord Kitchener very early one morning 
and urged him to see the Prime Minister and endeavour to 
arrange that he himself should take the place and that I should 
accompany him as his Chief of the Staff. Although at that 
moment he had no idea of taking over the position of Secretary 
of State for War I could not prevail upon him to do this. 

The nation have, indeed, suffered a grievous loss, and the 
finest monument they can erect to this great man's memory 
is to clothe themselves in the spirit of determination and con- 
centration of effort which characterised his long and valuable 
public career. 



The Right Hon. H. H. Asquith, M.P., Prime Minister 

I beg to move, " That this House will. To-morrow, resolve 
itself into a Committee to consider an humble Address to His 
Majesty, praying that His Majesty will give directions that a 
monument be erected at the public charge to the memory of the 
late Field-Marshal Earl Kitchener, with an inscription expressing 
the admiration of this House for his illustrious military career 
and its gratitude for his devoted services to the State." 



THE PRIME MINISTER 

When the House adjourned for the Whitsuntide Recess 
Lord Kitchener had just received a strong and unmistakable 
expression of its confidence, and the next day he met in private 
conference a large number of its Members, including some of his 
most persistent and, as it then seemed, irreconcilable critics, 
with the result that he -and they parted on terms not only of 
mutual respect, but of complete understanding. I am glad to 
remember that at our last interview he expressed his pleasure 
at what had happened, and his hope that this was the first step 
in a relationship of growing confidence and sympathy. When he 
said farewell, after nearly two years of daily intercourse, which 
had gone on through all the strain and stress of the War, there 
was no thought on either side of more than a temporary parting- 
no foreshadowing of a separation which neither time nor space 
can bridge. Providence, in its wisdom, was preparing for him 
sudden release from his burden of care and toil. We who for the 
moment remain — those of us in particular who shared, as I did, 
his counsels in the greatest emergencies of our time, with ever- 
growing intimacy and fullness — can only bow our heads before 
the Supreme Will with whom are the issues of life and death. 
Lord Kitchener, in whatever environment of circumstance or 
condition he might have been placed, would have been, as he 
was always and everywhere, a great and a dominant personality. 
He was tried in many different ordeals, and he always survived 
and conquered the test. He began his career in the Royal 
Engineers without any advantage either of birth or of 
favour. 

I remember well, about a year ago, when we were talking 
one day of the importance of promoting young officers who had 
distinguished themselves in war, he told me that he himself had 
been for, I think, twelve years, and remained, a subaltern in that 
fine and illustrious corps. He never chafed nor fretted after the 
fashion of smaller men. The hour came to him, as it comes to all 
who have discernment, faculty, and will, and from that moment 
his future was assured. His name is inseparably associated with 
that of Lord Cromer in one of the greatest achievements of our 
race and time — the emancipation and regeneration of Egypt. To 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

his genius we owe the conquest of the Soudan, and to his organis- 
ing initiative the process, wliich has ever since gone on, of sub- 
stituting over a vast, to a large extent a devastated, area, civilisa- 
tion for barbarism, justice for caprice and cruelty, a humane and 
equitable rule for a desolating and sterilising tyranny. 

From Egypt he was called, in a great Imperial emergency, to 
South Africa, where, in due time, he brought hostilities to a close, 
and Jielped to lay the foundations of that great and rapidly 
consolidating fabric which has welded alienated races, and given 
us in the great conflict of to-day the unique example of the stTvice 
which local autonomy can render to Imperial strength. The next 
stage of his life was given to India, where he reconstituted and re- 
organised our Army, native and British. Recalled to Egypt, he 
was displaying the same gifts in civil administration which he had 
already illustrated in the military sphere, when at the outbreak of 
the War he obeyed, with the alacrity of a man who has become 
the willing servant of duty, the summons to direct and to recreate 
our Imperial Forces in the supreme crisis of our national history. 
He brought to his new task the same sleepless energy, the same re- 
sourcefulness, the same masterful personality which never failed 
him in any of the fields of action in which he was, during nearly 
fifty years, called on behalf of his country to play his part. His 
career has been cut short while still in the full tide of unexhausted 
powers and possibilities. No one is less fitted than I feel myself 
at this moment to be to make an analysis or appraisement of his 
services to the State. I will only say this, that few men that I 
have known had less reason to shrink from submitting their lives 
to 

" those pure eyes 
And perfect witness of all-judging Jove." 



THE RIGHT HON. A. BONAR LAW, M.P. 

The Right Hon. A. Bonar Law, M.P. 

Secretary of State for the Colonies 

I desire in very few words to second the Resolution which 
has just been moved in words so eloquent and so touching by 
the Prime Minister. Lord Kitchener filled a great place in the 
minds not only of his countrymen, but of the world. At the 
close of the Conference which I attended the other day in Paris 
the President paid a glowing tribute, amid the hush of heart- 
felt sympathy of the representatives of all our Allies, to the 
memory of the great soldier, whose death was deplored as a loss 
not more to England than to the Alliance as a whole. Lord 
Kitchener's strength, like that of most, perhaps all, men of action, 
lay not so much in any mental process of logical reasoning which 
carried him to his decision as in that instinct which so often is 
deeper and truer than our thoughts. It was that sure instinct 
which at the outbreak of war warned him of the nature of the 
terrible struggle in which we were involved. It was that instinct 
which induced him at the beginning to set about the formation of 
armies on a scale such as we had never dreamed of, and at a time, 
as I believe, when no statesman of any party would have formed 
a conception so gigantic, and yet, as events have shown, so 
necessary. That Army exists to-day to play a great and, as we 
hope and believe, perhaps a decisive part in securing that victory 
on which the future of our race and, as we believe, the well-being 
of the world depends. That Army exists as a testimony of the 
strength and determination of our country, but it exists also as a 
noble and enduring monument to the memory of the man who 
created it. 

Lord Kitchener's death was indeed tragic, but if we consider 
the circumstances of it there are few of us who would not say, 
may my last end be like his. He died after nearly two years of 
war, in the responsibilities of which he had a great part, a war in 
which there were no striking victories and in which the fruits are 
still to be gathered, but he enjoyed, as the House knows, in the 
fullest degree, the confidence of his country. He died, as the 



THE LORD KITCHENER MEMORIAL BOOK 

Prime Minister has said, in tlu- liill tide of potentialities and 
possibilities. He died -with his eye not dimmed nor liis natural 
powers abated and after an arduous life in which he served his 
country in every quarter of the globe. He has fallen, the tide of 
battle still rolls on, and it is for us who remain to close our ranks 
with a single eve to secure that victory in the ultimate attainment 
of which he never doubted. 



G. J. Wardle, M.P. 

Chairimm of the Labour Party 

I should like to say, on behalf of those whom I represent, 
just one or two simple words in reference to the Motion which is 
now before the House, I cannot, like the Prime Minister and 
those others in official positions, say that I had many personal 
relations with Lord Kitchener, Indeed, I think I can say that I 
only saw him about three or four times, but two of the occasions 
upon which I saw him were memorable, and I shall not forget 
them so long as I live. Lord Kitchener on two occasions met the 
representatives of Labour in conference. It was a mark of 
confidence which we appreciated and still appreciate, and he 
made an impression on the minds of those present which will never 
fade. The working men of the country have a sure instinct for 
feeling worth and recognising worth when it is evident, and I 
believe in the case of Lord Kitchener there was no man, although 
to them he was largely a legend, in whom they had greater 
confidence and in whom they beheved more firmly. It may be 
that in the later events his policy and theirs did not run exactly 
on similar lines, but that did not diminish their respect and did 
not diminish their belief in him, and I believe that throughout 
the working classes of the country Lord Kitchener's name will 
always be respected and revered. I think the one quality above 
all others which appealed to them, and which always appeals to 
workmen, was that they believed him to be absolutely straight. 
There was no crookedness. They could rely upon his word, and 



G. J. WARDLE, M.P. 

it is that which in their hearts, I think, will be a much more im- 
perishable monument than any monument of stone which this 
House may erect to his memory. In the circumstances of his 
death they have been stirred in their deepest hearts. The 
feeling that was most characteristic when the tragic news came 
was that we were all stunned at the terrific news, and some of 
us have not yet quite recovered from that. I would join in the 
eloquent tributes which have already been paid to his memory. 
I would say, on behalf of my colleagues and on behalf of the 
working men of England, that we have lost a great leader whom it 
will be very difficult indeed to replace ; but the work which he 
began and in which he was interested — nay, more than interested 
— in which we, too, feel that the future of civilisation is at stake, 
we shall assist in helping to carry to its final and conclusive 
victory. 



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